Major countries compete among themselves and allocate large sums of their budgets for spending on the research and technological development sector in various fields. Technology has become the most important and prominent tool among the tools of development and progress of countries, and even one of the most important components

of the power of states in the modern era, and whoever owns it has owned the keys to other factors of power. The next trade war is undoubtedly the technology war. The United States of America and China have clearly realized this fact, the former is the unique pole and the most powerful globally, especially at the technological level, and China is a rising pole that is aggressively seeking to catch up with technology and modern technologies in all fields, so it is the most competitive country with the United States, which threatens its position as a leader of technological development at the global level, which is expected by the American Pole itself, which seeks to hinder China's relentless march towards the top of the international system and even continues to fight fiercely to limit its technological achievements in modern fields, which it threatens Washington's position and undermines its military sovereignty as the only dominant superpower on the whole The world order after the Second World War. That is why the competition between the two sides is intensifying commercially, politically and media, and within the framework of this fierce competition, the United States of America is spending more of its resources on the technology sector, especially in the field of high-tech technology to counter the Industrial Strategy launched by China, which enabled it to develop its capabilities in the same field, making it advanced in the military and economic fields, and in the field of outer space as well.

The US-China conflict began to surface, and its noise began to disturb the world, which is holding its breath due to the increasing intensity of the conflict between the two parties. Perhaps the economic war is less severe and violent than combat wars, but it is more important, more dangerous and stronger, and this is the reality in the era of technology and the information revolution; if the colonial wars of the past, in which the big countries and empires were fighting over the occupation of territories and the construction of colonies, turned into wars over natural resources such as water and energy, the conflict over the construction of dams around rivers and the search for gas fields buried in the waters of the seas after those buried in the desert were depleted, while shots and projectiles with technology and artificial intelligence, and became The fighter carries the virus instead of taking up arms, and the major countries invested in the disease industry instead of making weapons and used technology to spread epidemics and develop diseases.

The Chinese economy has become the real ogre that America fears, and Chinese companies have already become stronger and more dangerous to the American economy than anything else, as Beijing seeks to create a parallel economic empire that can end decades and decades of American dominance over the global economy. It seems that the United States is losing its race with China in the field of technology and technical development, and that Chinese technology companies will probably pull the rug out from under the feet of American technology giants in the coming years. Recently, the fears of the American authorities and experts about the accelerated progress made by Beijing in the field of artificial intelligence and technology as a whole, especially in the military sector, have escalated, which may make it win the race in a not so long period, according to some observers, perhaps this is what explains Washington's eagerness in trying to encircle China through international sanctions or restrictions on technology exports to it, even to recommendations to extract cadres and talents from China and harness them for the benefit of the United States and its companies.

The United States is exerting significant pressure on China using a range of laws and punitive measures, including blocking access to sensitive technology, advanced semiconductors and advanced electronic chips feeding AI processing power in order to hinder Beijing's ability to build the computing power required to develop its AI capabilities. In return, China is seeking to circumvent and overcome US sanctions by building a series of secret chip and semiconductor manufacturing facilities throughout the country as a shadow that allows it to avoid sanctions imposed on it and continue to realize China's technological ambitions. It explains the nature and reasons for the aggravation of geopolitical tensions between the two countries in the Pacific Ocean around the island of Taiwan, which represents ٨٠% of the volume of the world's chip industry.

The Chinese telecommunications giant "Huawei" has turned to the construction and purchase of facilities under the names of other companies, in order to circumvent these restrictions to purchase American chipmaking equipment and other supplies indirectly. Therefore, the United States issued a new package of restrictions on technology exports to China, including specific types of advanced chips, their manufacturing equipment, and chemical compounds for their design and manufacture,‘ as Washington sought to punish Chinese companies such as Huawei and ZTE, to face the risk of losing leadership in fifth-generation technology (5G) in favor of China, as US President Donald Trump adopted in stricter policies by imposing tariffs worth billion dollars in order to hinder Chinese economic growth in the technology sector, especially semiconductors and electronic chips, and continued the policies of the administration of the current President Joe Biden are along the same lines, as Biden signed an order The executive order authorizes the Treasury Department to ban or restrict certain US investments in Chinese entities in the following sectors: semiconductors, Microelectronics, quantum information technologies, and artificial intelligence systems in order to stifle China's emerging efforts in the field of artificial intelligence and quantum computing. To begin with, a fierce technological trade war between the two countries threatens to collapse the global economic system, which will have dramatic effects on the global economy, especially on the weak part of it, which is certainly the third world countries. The African continent is witnessing part of this Sino-American confrontation in an attempt to contain the growing Chinese influence there, especially in countries rich in the types of minerals necessary for the production of future technologies and sustainable energy sources .

Will the technological competition between China and the USA affect the international system Is technology really playing such a role in changing the balance of power between China and the USA

Dr. Mohammed Askar

Technology and information security expert


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