Monday, 22 May 2017 22:28

Renew of Moringa cultivation in Egypt

Prof. Dr. Said Abdelhalim Saleh

      Moringa is a native plant and is grown wild in Red Sea belts and Southeast Asia. It is a fast-growing tree and

cultivated mainly in semi-arid, tropical and subtropical areas. Moringa is one of the world’s most useful plants, where, all Moringa parts are edible and have long been consumed by humans. Moringa is rich in protein, minerals and vitamins, etc. Thus, it has growing international interest among NGOs, scientists and the private sector, as a source of food supplement for human and livestock.

In Egypt, little knowledge is known about Moringa, although Moringa peregrina is a native tree and growing wild in SINAI mountains since 3000 BC. The ancient Egyptians used its oil for skin protection from sun as well as for wound healing. This article introduces Moringa for cultivation as non-traditional crop in Egypt and its application uses as a good nutritional plant. The Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa started re-cultivation of Moringa oleifera at the beginning of 2010. We planted tens of thousands of seedlings during the last five years and the cultivated areas of Moringa are annually increasing. Also, there is growing demand by the consumers for Moringa and all its products, where it carries the aspects of humanitarian to poor people for being a dietary supplement for humans and animals, and the importance of medical according to wide use in folk medicine. For this reason, Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa is seeking to expand Moringa cultivation in Egypt as medical herb or vegetable with high nutritional value and introduce its practical application in nutritional uses and animal feed, etc. Moringa is a multipurpose tree and model for agriculture in SINAI area and newly reclaimed land, where it has high resistance to drought, salinity and high temperatures. Many activities in multidisciplinary fields were conducted during the last few years, where several trips were carried out to collect the wild Moringa plants from SINAI mountains and Red Sea belts. The research team of our project visited SINAI area (AL-TOUR) and HALAYEP & SHALATEEN regions (GABAL ELBA). We aimed to discover and recognize the Egyptian flora in these areas and to collect wild materials of Moringa peregrina. The original people (BEDWEEN) in SINAI area and HALAYEP and SHALATEEN helped our research team to reach the wild Egyptian species of Moringa at different tree distribution among mountain valleys. Many number of Moringa peregrina trees exist inside the mountains were found.

Many thousands of Moringa oleifera seeds were sown in seedling trays at DOKKI Greenhouses site during the last period. The seedlings of Moringa oleifera were transferred and cultivated at the Farms in AL-SALAM village and AL-SHABAB village in middle of SINAI Peninsula and at Experimental Farm of the National Research Centre in BEER ABO KALAM in south of SINIA. Also, we transferred Moringa seedlings to SHALATEEN region on the Red Sea belt and cultivated them at 6 different cultivation areas and 7 Governmental Administrations. We use intensive cultivation in spacings of 15 x 60 cm, resulting in approximately 40000 plants in feddan (4200 m2) for leaves production and to cultivate Moringa plants in spacings of 2 x 3 m, resulting in 700 trees in feddan (4200 m2) for seed production. The plant growth and its behavior evaluated to determine the optimal conditions for cultivation of Moringa oleifera plants to get maximum yield and best quality of Moringa product. Several field trips to SINAI farmers were conducted to follow up the cultivated Moringa plants and to apply optimum treatments for cultivation of Moringa oleifera plants to get maximum yield and best quality. The team work of the Agricultural Division studied the best agronomic of dates and farming methods and fertilizer requirements for Moringa to ensure getting the best product quality with high nutritional value in order to achieve increased concentration of active substances and the same desired effect for better applications uses, especially, nutrition and animal feed. In the first experiment, the effect of different formula of fertilizers was studied. The second experiment investigated several plant densities. The third experiment is aiming to evaluate the response of Moringa oleiferacultivated in two different soil types to different foliar application rates of Nitrogen and Potassium fertilization. In the fourth experiment, we are trying to cultivateMoringa oleifera under inter cropping system with fruit trees such as Valencia Orange trees and Hollywood Plum trees at different cultivation spaces to know the suitable spaces between Moringa oleifera and fruit trees under inter cropping system.

We achieved many good recommendations for Moringa farmers as follows:

  • The combination of both organic with chemical fertilizers plus microbial inoculation is recommended, where there is a positive trend to increase Moringa productivity (the best product quantity and quality).
  • Concerning the distance among Moringa plants, after planting Moringa at three different agricultural distances to be given three densities plant for unit area, we found that all vegetative traits recorded on plants such as plant height and stem diameter and number of leaves per plant and the total weight of the plant, fresh or dry weights, chlorophyll increased with increasing the agriculture distance between plants.
  • Moringa plants cultivated in sandy soil showed a better response in all vegetative growth characters (plant height and number of leaves/plant), pod yield and its components (number of pods/plant, mean pod length and number of seeds/plant) compared to those cultivated in calcareous soil.
  • Moringa production can be sustained even in calcareous soils by simple foliar application treatments of Nitrogen and Potassium. All foliar application treatments improved the vegetative growth characters, yield and pod quality as well as chemical contents (total chlorophyll, vitamin C, N, K and Ca) of leaves compared to untreated control. The combined treatment of N and K ranked first in increasing Moringa growth and its productivity, followed by the single N and lastly the single K treatment.
  • Moringa consumers have more information about Moring products and their benefits and quality for nutrition. So, we can recommend using Moringa for human nutrition and animal feeding.
  • The cultivation of Moringa seeds directly into the soil and\or using seedlings system is recommended.


  • In conclusion, we introduced Moringa plants to Egyptian farmers and consumers as nontraditional vegetable crop. The cultivated areas of Moringa have been increased. Good recommendations for Moringa farmers were applied. Other experiments are still running and data has not completed yet. Once we collect data, the results will mention in other article.

More about author|

Prof. Dr./ Said Abdelhalim Saleh

Researcher Professor at Horticultural Crops Technology Dept.,

Agricultural & Biological Research Division,

National Research Centre

Published in Resarches

Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim Ezzo …and

Prof. Dr. Safia Adam


Egyptian desert and Sinai  development using Moringa tree .

Moringa tree promising Economy tree in Egypt(life tree-miracle tree-quite tree)

      In order to development of  Sinai, Agriculture as well as industry should be taken in  consideration. Researches proved that Moringa tree could be a gift from God by which we can begin cultivation in Sinai. Egyptian Economy can depend on Moringa products as follows:


1- Oil industry ,i,e. Moringa seeds contains not less than 30-40 of its weight a very high quality oil which could be a nucleus for many industries, i,e. seed squeezing factors ,creams and shampoos production , Moringa oil is safe for human use and its  product could be used without any harmful effects for moreover , the residual of seed squeezing could be used for animal feeding since it contains higher nutrient elements than other animal food products .


Moringa leaves can be a good raw material for many industries ,i.e. medical capsules industry which is essential for human health and activities . Also, industry of ground Moringa leaves packing to achieve a high quality drink  of high nutritional and medicinal value for  many diseases .

        Moringa leaves are collected after 90 days of cultivation and then 45 -50 days intervals could be ground and used for animals feeding by which meat and milk production  is greatly increased , a way through which a problem of meat production could be solved and milk production is increased up to 45-65 percentage . One of the most important Moringa products is Ziga drink  which is used by sportsmen . A drink of high quality and high price (about 12 Yoro ) is taken from moringa leaves without additive materials . Moringa tea and Moringa Coffee are among the important industries which depend on Moringa plant due to its high content of nutrients essential for human health. Moringa leaves could be also, for cooking purposes as  Spinach and is  used as a green salad constituent .

As for Moringa pods , it could be cooked similar to green Phasolus, due to its high nutritional value. Moringa flowers could be a good source for honey production, which is of high nutritional value compared to other bee feeding flowers .

       Finally , it could be concluded that Moringa tree is a gift  from God , due to its high benefits for many uses and purposes ,moreover , it has a beautiful appearance ,and bright flowers . Cultivation and increase of Moringa uses is a must, to get use of this miracle tree . Egyptians have to pay attention to Moringa plant to be cultivated everywhere, use its products for improving human health ,animals meat and milk  production ,water purification. All we appreciate the support of Egyptians towards raising Egyptian economy ,health and ecology safety.


Thanks to every Egyptians looking forward to increasing Moringa  knowledge to attain the maximum use of such tree . Finally, I say to everyone that if we are interested in this tree on the level of agricultural production and industrial and commercial, medical and preventive and publish everywhere and encourage all people to spread the planting will be supportive of the Egyptian economy.  The Arab would be the will of God is greater than oil profits because the oil would run out in one day, but Moringa tree continues.  Thanks God in the tender because it is a gift from God to peoples of the world and call on the Almighty God to publish in all parts of the repeated free and our address at the National Center for Research – horticultural Crops Tech. department and we hope that is based on agriculture, cultivation and dissemination of this tree, which is called miracle tree in America and in Japan, the tree of life, and we call it in Egypt good tree.


Published in Resarches

By Prof.|Elham Mohammed Yousef Al Yousef

    Oxidative stress is highly correlated with cumulative cellular and tissue injury done by free radicals, reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species which are inadequately neutralized by antioxidants. Evidence of obesity-induced oxidative stress in humans has been accumulating over the past few years. It suggested that overconsumption of diet rich in fat and/or carbohydrates plays a central role in promoting oxidative stress in liver, triggering the redox-sensitive transcription factor such as NF-κB, some inflammatory processes, prevalence of hepatic steatosis, and other liver lesions called steatohepatitis .
Protection against ROS damage depends on the expression of the antioxidant systems within the body or external supplementation of antioxidants. During infections, inflammation and several other pathologies, the body defends itself from further injury by use of ROS such as the superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide from normal cell redox processes. Regulation of ROS defense can be reinforced by supplementation with plant derived natural extracts and compounds, such as resveratrol; and antioxidant exogenous sources enriched with flavonoids and vitamin C from the diet. Several medicinal plants have been reported to act as sources of exogenous antioxidants. Amongst them is moringa, a small genus comprising 13 species of trees and shrubs distributed in Africa and Asia. M. peregrine, M. stenopetala and M. oleifera are examples of species that have broad variety of uses and have attracted growing interest recently in Egypt.

Several scientific articles has been published describing the antioxidant properties of moringa . However, much of the evidence remains anecdotal as there has been little actual scientific research done to support these claims .Therefore the present study was designed to compare the antioxidant effect of three species of natural antioxidants ,moringa plant, on liver tissue under oxidative stress and to shed the light on morphological and structural alterations in obese rat livers following treatment with the three types of oil .
We used high fat diet to induce obesity and oxidative stress in liver of rats for 8 weeks then we compared the effect of three Moringa species, oleifera , perigrena and stenopetala oil in reducing the liver injury. Histology and serum activity of hepatic marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipid profile, and glucose have been recorded. Lipid peroxide (MDA), Glutathione peroxidase, Catalase, and Superoxide dismutase were also estimated using liver homogenate.

The results revealed a significant (P < 0.05 ) decrease in antioxidant capacity and a significant (P < 0.05 ) increase in (Malondialdehyde) MDA level in rats fed on HFD compared to those fed on normal diet (P < 0.05 ) . After treatment with the three species of Moringa seed oil extract, the antioxidant capacity significantly
(P < 0.05 ) increased and the MDA significantly (P < 0.05 ) decreased .Two of the three types of Moringa oil ,peregrina and stenopetala , were found to cause the level of hepatic , antioxidant enzymes and MDA to approach the control level more than Moringa oleifera . This might be due to their higher contents of phenolic compounds and DPPH scavenging activity than moringa oleifra .

An assessment of the histological profiles of the livers showed that the control group of albino rats showed normal liver profiles comprising no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes (Fig.1). After receiving HFD for 8 weeks there was a marked distortion of the liver cyto-architecture with marked fatty change and steatosis (Fig.2). Post-treatment of HFD fed rats with different types of moringa oil exhibited a remarkable improvement in their histological profiles (Fig. 4, 5, 6) especially those treated with M.stenopetala (Fig. 3).

These data suggested that M. stenopetala likely serves as better antioxidant and might have the effect of scavenging free radicals more than the other two species.
Hence, data obtained here offer an understanding on the variations in restoring HFD induced oxidative stress liver tissue by oil extracted from three moringa species but further work is still needed.


Published in Resarches
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