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Egyptian study| Moringa is Excellent Healer

Researched by | Dr.Mahmoud Abdelghany A. M. Hashem

Ph.D Biochemistry Researcher Regional Center for Food and Feed Agricultural Research Center

Email:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Tel: 01005117017

 

         Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina and Moringa stenopetala are three species belong to a single genus family Moringaceae that has fourteen species, (Ganesana et al., 2014). There is limited information about the chemical, anti-nutritional contents of the flour and characterization of the oil extracted from the seeds, (Mustapha et al., 2015). Moringa has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and have been used as a treatment for many diseases.

 

The leaves, fruits, flowers and immature pods of this tree are edible and they form a part of traditional diets in many countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. Apart from its dietary importance, local folklore credits Moringa with a lot of herbal potency, (Ozumba et al, 2009).

 

Some of the uses of the plant include use in alley cropping, animal forage, as domestic cleaning agent, as fertilizer, for live fencing, as medicine, as ornamentals and it is resistant to most pests. Drumstick or Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose tropical tree that belongs to Moringaceae family and has originated from Himalayan tract in Northwestern part of India, (Mendieta-Araica et al., 2012 and Pandey et al., 2011).

 

Seed flour from Moringa oleifera is widely used as a natural coagulant for water treatment in developing countries, (Santos et al., 2005). In developing countries, Moring has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable land care, (National Research Council, 2006). Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolic, (Anwar et al., 2007).

 

Mature seeds yield (38–40%) edible oil called ben oil from its high concentration of behenic acid. The refined oil is clear, odorless and resists rancidity, can also be used as a natural source of behenic acid, which has been used as an oil structuring and solidifying agent in margarine, shortening, and foods containing semisolid and solid fats, eliminating the need to hydrogenate the oil. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer, (Rashid et al., 2008).

Moringa flowers are used in treating malnutrition in traditional settings. The plant seeds contain hypotensive activity, strong antioxidant activity and chelating property against arsenic toxicity, (Santos et al., 2009).

 

“Diabetes” means siphon and “mellitus” stands for sweet. Diabetes is a complex multisystem disorder characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and disturbances in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism, it is an insidious disease, (Rakesh et al., 2008). Although the prevalence of diabetes is increasing, diabetes is not homogenously distributed throughout the population, (Michael, 2010).

Chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes causes gyration of body proteins that in turn leads to secondary complications affecting eyes (retinopathy), kidneys (nephropathy), nerves (neuropathy) and arteries (atherosclerotic vascular disease).

The international diabetes federation (IDF, 2014) has predicted that the number of individuals with diabetes increased from 382 million in 2014 to 592 million, in 2035 with 80% of the disease burden in low and middle-income countries, (IDF, 2014) according to recent estimation, the global population is approaching the midst of diabetes pandemic.

The plant kingdom represents a rich storehouse of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes and could serve as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years, (Bhoomika et al., 2007).

Many of traditional medicinal plants have been used successfully since ancient times to treat diabetes and related complications because plants have been the major source of drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and other ancient systems in the world, though their biologically active compounds are unknown.

 

Ethnobotanical information indicates that more than 800 plants are used as traditional remedies for the treatment of diabetes due to their effectiveness, less side effects and relatively low cost, (Rathod et al., 2008). Botanical products can improve glucose metabolism and the overall condition of individuals with diabetes not only by hypoglycemic effects but also by improving lipid metabolism, antioxidant status and capillary function, (Alam et al., 2003).

Recently numerous traditional medicinal plants were tested for their antidiabetic potential in the experimental animals. Based on several studies, reviews, articles and researches:

Ganesana et al., (2014), Mahmood, et al., (2010), Adebayo, et al., (2011), MPFI, (2013);

 

the need for extensive documentation and focused research on the family as a whole and not only on some species “e.g. Moringa oleifera” has motivated us to bridge the information gap in this area. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine and evaluate (in vitro) the chemical composition of leaves and seeds contents of Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina, and Moringa stenopetala from five places under Egyptian conditions. In addition, to evaluate (in vivo) the biological and antidiabetic effect of the extractions of Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina, and Moringa stenopetala leaves on STZ-induced diabetic male albino rats. In a recent study of Ph..D Mahmoud Abdelghany (2015) titled:

 

Biochemical Studies on Some Moringa Species in North Africa On Moringa olifiera (MO), Moringa stenopetala (MS), Moringa peregrina (MP) belong to the family Moringaceae. The two aims of this investigation were to determine and evaluate (in vitro) the chemical composition of leaves and seeds contents for MO, MS and MP which were collected from five places under Egyptian conditions.

In addition to evaluate (in vivo) the effects of ethanolic and aqueous extract of MO, MS and MP leaves on streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes rats, by single intraperitoneal injection 65 mg/kg b.w. Many proximate chemical analyses carried out The results of the chemical composition analysis showed that Moringa species leaves and seeds have high significant nutritional values; the moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, energy, elements;

 

Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, and vitamins C and A. Also, Moringa leaves recorded significant increases for amino acids compositions, amino acids/protein ratio, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities against DPPH free radical. Meanwhile, the oil proprieties evaluated and the results showed significant decreases in; free fatty acids percentage’s, peroxide values, iodine values and showed significant increases for saponification values. Also, the fatty acids compositions were evaluated and the major saturated fatty acids;

palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and behenic (C22:0) recorded high significant values. On the other hand, the main unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1n9);

 

Eicosenoic (C20:1n9) and Palmitoleic acids (C16:1n7) recorded significant values.

 

The biological experiment was divided into two stages; in the first stage, 42 male albino rats were divided into 7 groups. Group1; normal control, group 2;

diabetic control, diabetic groups 3, 4 and 5 treated with MOL ethanolic extracts 600, 450 and 300 mg/kg b.w, respectively and diabetic groups 6 and 7 were treated with aqueous 190 and 225 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Fasting (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Creatinine, Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) were evaluated.

Significant reduction p​

 

 

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More about 

Dr.Mahmoud Abdelghany A. M. Hashem

Ph.D Biochemistry Researcher Regional Center for Food and Feed Agricultural Research Center

Email:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

   Tel: 01005117017

Published in Resarches
Wednesday, 27 December 2017 20:49

Moringa Excellent Healer, New Egyptian study

Dr.Mahmoud Abdelghany A. M. Hashem

Ph.D Biochemistry Researcher Regional Center for Food and Feed Agricultural Research Center

Email:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Tel: 01005117017

Moringa Excellent Healer

 

Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina and Moringa stenopetala are three species belong to a single genus family Moringaceae that has fourteen species, (Ganesana et al., 2014). There is limited information about the chemical, anti-nutritional contents of the flour and characterization of the oil extracted from the seeds, (Mustapha et al., 2015). Moringa has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and have been used as a treatment for many diseases.

The leaves, fruits, flowers and immature pods of this tree are edible and they form a part of traditional diets in many countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. Apart from its dietary importance, local folklore credits Moringa with a lot of herbal potency, (Ozumba et al, 2009).

Some of the uses of the plant include use in alley cropping, animal forage, as domestic cleaning agent, as fertilizer, for live fencing, as medicine, as ornamentals and it is resistant to most pests. Drumstick or Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose tropical tree that belongs to Moringaceae family and has originated from Himalayan tract in Northwestern part of India, (Mendieta-Araica et al., 2012 and Pandey et al., 2011).

Seed flour from Moringa oleifera is widely used as a natural coagulant for water treatment in developing countries, (Santos et al., 2005). In developing countries, Moring has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable land care, (National Research Council, 2006). Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolic, (Anwar et al., 2007).

Mature seeds yield (38–40%) edible oil called ben oil from its high concentration of behenic acid. The refined oil is clear, odorless and resists rancidity, can also be used as a natural source of behenic acid, which has been used as an oil structuring and solidifying agent in margarine, shortening, and foods containing semisolid and solid fats, eliminating the need to hydrogenate the oil. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer, (Rashid et al., 2008). Moringa flowers are used in treating malnutrition in    traditional settings.

 The plant seeds contain hypotensive activity, strong antioxidant activity and chelating property against arsenic     toxicity, (Santos et al., 2009). “Diabetes” means siphon and “mellitus” stands for sweet. Diabetes is a complex     multisystem disorder characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and disturbances in   carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism, it is an insidious disease, (Rakesh et al., 2008).

 

 Although the prevalence of diabetes is increasing, diabetes is not homogenously distributed throughout the   population, (Michael, 2010). Chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes causes gyration of body proteins that in turn   leads to secondary complications affecting eyes (retinopathy), kidneys (nephropathy), nerves (neuropathy) and   arteries (atherosclerotic vascular disease). The international diabetes federation (IDF, 2014) has predicted that     the number of individuals with diabetes increased from 382 million in 2014 to 592 million, in 2035 with 80% of the disease burden in low and middle-income countries, (IDF, 2014) according to recent estimation, the global population is approaching the midst of diabetes pandemic.

 

The plant kingdom represents a rich storehouse of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes and could serve as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years, (Bhoomika et al., 2007). Many of traditional medicinal plants have been used successfully since ancient times to treat diabetes and related complications because plants have been the major source of drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and other ancient systems in the world, though their biologically active compounds are unknown. Ethnobotanical information indicates that more than 800 plants are used as traditional remedies for the treatment of diabetes due to their effectiveness, less side effects and relatively low cost, (Rathod et al., 2008).

 

Botanical products can improve glucose metabolism and the overall condition of individuals with diabetes not only by hypoglycemic effects but also by improving lipid metabolism, antioxidant status and capillary function, (Alam et al., 2003). Recently numerous traditional medicinal plants were tested for their antidiabetic potential in the experimental animals. Based on several studies, reviews, articles and researches: Ganesana et al., (2014), Mahmood, et al., (2010), Adebayo, et al., (2011), MPFI, (2013); the need for extensive documentation and focused research on the family as a whole and not only on some species “e.g. Moringa oleifera” has motivated us to bridge the information gap in this area. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine and evaluate (in vitro) the chemical composition of leaves and seeds contents of Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina, and Moringa stenopetala from five places under Egyptian conditions.

In addition, to evaluate (in vivo) the biological and antidiabetic effect of the extractions of Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina, and Moringa stenopetala leaves on STZ-induced diabetic male albino rats. In a recent study of Ph..D Mahmoud Abdelghany (2015) titled: Biochemical Studies on Some Moringa Species in North Africa On Moringa olifiera (MO), Moringa stenopetala (MS), Moringa peregrina (MP) belong to the family Moringaceae. The two aims of this investigation were to determine and evaluate (in vitro) the chemical composition of leaves and seeds contents for MO, MS and MP which were collected from five places under Egyptian conditions. In addition to evaluate (in vivo) the effects of ethanolic and aqueous extract of MO, MS and MP leaves on streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes rats, by single intraperitoneal injection 65 mg/kg b.w. Many proximate chemical analyses carried out The results of the chemical composition analysis showed that Moringa species leaves and seeds have high significant nutritional values; the moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, energy, elements;

Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, and vitamins C and A. Also, Moringa leaves recorded significant increases for amino acids compositions, amino acids/protein ratio, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities against DPPH free radical. Meanwhile, the oil proprieties evaluated and the results showed significant decreases in; free fatty acids percentage’s, peroxide values, iodine values and showed significant increases for saponification values. Also, the fatty acids compositions were evaluated and the major saturated fatty acids; palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and behenic (C22:0) recorded high significant values. On the other hand, the main unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1n9); Eicosenoic (C20:1n9) and Palmitoleic acids (C16:1n7) recorded significant values. The biological experiment was divided into two stages; in the first stage, 42 male albino rats were divided into 7 groups. Group1; normal control, group 2; diabetic control, diabetic groups 3, 4 and 5 treated with MOL ethanolic extracts 600, 450 and 300 mg/kg b.w, respectively and diabetic groups 6 and 7 were treated with aqueous 190 and 225 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Fasting (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Creatinine, Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) were evaluated. Significant reduction p​

 

Published in Resarches

Research by| Dr. Ahmed A. Abd-Rabou,

PhD, Researcher (Lecturer) in Cancer Nanotechnology,

Hormones Department, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre.Egypt,Cairo

 

Botanical-relevant medicineslisted in the ancient developing countries like Egypt. This trend provides essential pharmaceutical candidates that have been prescribed for numerous aliments over years. In these countries, cancer patients interested in alternative therapies to avoid the burden impacts and high expenses of the currently available chemotherapies, so they turned back to the nature for safe and wide alimental therapies [Abd-Rabou et al., 2012].

Moringaoleiferais an important species of the Moringaceae, a monogeneric family. Its tree, the drumstick tree, was native at the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. In addition, Moringaoleiferahas been medically utilized by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks; after that, it was globally cultivated for spreading its medicinal benefits around the world [Oliveira et al., 1999].

All Moringaoleifera parts are edible and have long been utilized by human beings [Fuglie, 1999]. Different parts ofMoringaoleiferaare well-known to have numerous good biological activities, such as anticancer [Mekonnen et al., 2005], antioxidant [Chumark et al., 2008],as well as immune activator [Faizi et al., 1994]. Moreover, Moringaoleiferahas been utilized for treatments of malaria, hypertension, asthma, diabetes, and stomach disordersand to expel retained placenta [Mekonnen and Gessesse, 1998].

The levels of anti-oxidants in different parts of Moringaoleifera have been recently identified. There were significant differences in sugar concentration and anti-oxidant distribution in different parts of Moringaoleifera. The sucrose concentration was the dominant carbohydrate produced in different parts, except glucose in plant roots. Raffinose was detected only in leaf, stem and root, whereas the highest anti-oxidant concentration was also observed in: Total anti-oxidant (TAO) (1.8 mg), leaf-ascorbic acid (AsA) (2.0 mg), and total phenols (TP) (64.1 µg); stem-TAO (1.2 mg); root-carotenoids (29.7 mg), and TP (57.3 µg). Although Moringaoleifera had substantial amount of total crude protein, leaf (76.1 mg) had the highest concentration [Tesfay et al., 2011].

 

 

Cancers are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer related deaths, respectively.  The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next 2 decades. Among men, the 5 most common sites of cancer diagnosed were lung, prostate, colon, stomach, and liver cancers. Among women the 5 most common sites diagnosed were breast, colon, lung, cervix, and stomach cancers[WHO, 2015].

Very recently, it have been investigated the remarkable effects of Moringaoleifera leaves and bark on breast and colorectal cancerous cell lines[Al-Asmari et al., 2015]. Moringaoleifera, a common vegetable used by inhabitants of tropical and sub-tropical nations,was found to induce apoptosis-mediated cell death and cell cycle arrest associated with remarkable changes in the cell phenotypic properties in both beast and colorectal cancerous cell lines. In addition, the analyses of its extracts using indicated considerable compounds with anti-cancer prosperities [Al-Sharif et al., 2013]. On the other hand, the anti-tumor impact of the Moringaleaf and bark extracts on hepatic cancer cell line has beeninvestigated. It was found that the leaf crude extract has a significant anticancer effect against those liver cancer cells compared to that of the bark extract of Moringa[Balamurugan et al., 2015].

3- Nanobiotechnology: A promising therapeutic approach

Nanobiotechnology or bionanotechnologyisa term refers to the connecting point betweentwo fields; nanotechnology and biology. This discipline helps to designatea new merging approach of a biological research with the nanotechnology. Nano-drug delivery for cancer therapy is one concept that is enhanced through nanobiotechnology. This strategy allows biologists to imagine and designdelivery systems that can be used for specificallytackling cancer or other diseases[Ehud, 2007].

  • Moringaoleifera: A novel anti-cancer candidate for approaching nanobiotechnology

Due to the global ongoing interest in the nanotechnology with prospective applications in health and drug delivery for cancer therapy [Park et al., 2008], polymeric nanoparticles and nano-micelles were designed and synthesized, providing unique physicochemical characteristics resulting from the nano-size effect [Sumer and Gao, 2008]. The nanoparticles of the FDA approved biodegradable polymer, PLGA, is widely used for the delivery of various natural treatments to the target site. However, rapid opsonization by phagocytes is a major challenge for achieving effective drug targeting by PLGA nano-formulation, surface coating by biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with low toxicity were used to curb the phagocytic effects and to enhance the longevity of the nanoparticles [Hu et al., 2008]. Intriguingly, this chemical modification not only improves the biocompatibility of nanoparticles[Zhang et al., 2002], but also reduces the adsorption of circulating plasma proteins onto the material surface [Amiji, 1997].

 

 

  • Current project: Aim and strategy

The aim of our current project is to assess the potential anti-cancer effects of Moringaoleiferadifferent parts, derived from the Egyptian Scientific Society of Moringa (ESSM), National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Seed oil ofMoringaoleifera formulated in nano-micelles and nano-composites of other parts were synthesized and characterized to be tested against liver, breast, and colorectal cancer cell linescompared with normal cells to identify their targetability against cancer cells, while sparing normal cells with minimal cytotoxic effect. Hence, the novelty of our research work is that we are testing the Moringaoleiferanano-prototypesversustheir free counterparts. Eventually, their impacts on resistant cancerous cells are investigating as well.

 

Published in Resarches

Research by | Sidney J. Stohs* and Michael J. Hartman

AdvoCare International,

Plano, TX 75074, USA

 

Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihyper-tensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

 

INTRODUCTION

Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tree that grows widely in many tropical and subtropical countries. It is grown commercially in India, Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, Hawaii, and throughout Asia and Southeast Asia. It is known as the drumstick tree based on the appearance of its immature seed pods, the horse-radish tree based on the taste of ground root prepara-tions, and the ben oil tree from seed-derived oils. In some areas, immature seed pods are eaten, while the leaves are widely used as a basic food because of their high nutrition content (Thurber and Fahey, 2009; Mbikay, 2012; Razis et al., 2014). No human clinical trials have been conducted looking at the efficacy of M. oleifera for treating undernutrition.

 

Seeds, leaves, oil, sap, bark, roots, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine. Moringa leaves have been characterized to contain a desirable nutritional balance, containing vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids (Moyo et al., 2011; Teixeira et al., 2014; Razis et al., 2014). Additionally, the leaves are reported to contain various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics, and carotenoids (Alhakmani et al., 2013; Vongsak et al., 2014).

 

antihyperlipidemic, antineoplastic, antipyretic, antiulcer, cardioprotectant, and hepatoprotectant activities. The therapeutic potential of M. oleifera leaves in treating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia was reviewed by Mbikay (2012). Razis et al. (2014) summarized po-tential health benefits of M. oleifera, focusing on their nutritional content as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics.

  

SAFETY STUDIES

No adverse effects were reported in any of the hu-man studies that have been conducted to date, and these studies will be described in more detail later in the text. Furthermore, various preparations have been and continued to be used around the world as foods and as medicinals without the report of ill effects. Several animal studies have specifically assessed the potential toxicity of various preparations on M. oleifera.

 

The safety of an aqueous leaf extract given orally to rats at doses of 400, 800, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg body weight was examined (Adedapo et al., 2009). The treatment was either an acute single dose or given daily for 21 days except the highest dose. Various pa-rameters were assessed including blood cell counts and serum enzyme levels. The authors concluded that consumption of M. oleifera leaves at doses of up to 2000 mg/kg were safe. A dose-dependent decrease in body weights of the rats occurred over the 21 days of the study.

Received 08 October 2014

Revised 20 December 2014

© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Accepted 14 February 2015 This is an open access article under the terms of the  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

 

Asare et al. (2012) examined the potential toxicity of an aqueous leaf extract of M. oleifera in several different experimental systems. In one set of experiments, rats were given 1000 and 3000 mg/kg of the extract, and the animals were assessed for up to 14 days. The M. oleifera leaf extract was shown to be genotoxic based on blood cell analysis at the 3000 mg/kg dose, a dose that greatly exceeds commonly used doses. A dose of 1000 mg/kg was deemed safe and did not produce genotoxicity when given to rats, a dose still in excess of commonly used doses.

 

Ambi et al. (2011) divided 24 rats into four groups and fed varying amounts of M. oleifera powdered leaves mixed with standard livestock feed (25%, 50%, 75%, and control) for 93 days. Total amount of M. oleifera leaves consumed was not quantified. Following the experimental period, some organs of the treated animals had observable microscopic lesions with the 75% group developed necrosis of hepatic cells, splenic blood ves-sels, and neuronal glial cells. The control animals had no observable microscopic lesions in all organs exam-ined. No photomicrographs of any tissues were pro-vided. The amounts of leaves consumed, although not quantified by the authors, greatly exceeded doses that would be typically used in either rats or humans. For example, if the rats consumed an average of 15–20 g of chow per day, even at the low dose of 25% of the chow, the daily dose would be approximately 15–20 g of leaves per kilogram for an adult rat, which would equate to 195–260 g for an 80-kg human.

 

The toxicity of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves has also been evaluated in mice (Awodele et al., 2012). In an acute study, mice were administered the extract at up to 6400 mg/kg orally and 1500 mg/kg intra-peritoneally. In a subchronic study, mice received 250, 500, and 1500 mg/kg orally for 60 days. The lethal dose of 50% LD50 was estimated to be 1585 mg/kg. No signif-icant effects were observed with respect to hematologi-cal or biochemical parameters or sperm quality. A high degree of safety was observed on oral administration.

 

The toxicological effects associated with consump-tion of 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of methanol extract of M. oleifera for 8 weeks was performed in 30 rats (Oyagbemi et al., 2013). The extract was a 30:1 con-centration. All experimental animals that received M. oleifera had a significant increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, contrary to what is observed with an aqueous extract (Adedapo et al., 2009). Rats that received M. oleifera at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed a sig-nificant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, as-partate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. It should be noted that the extract was pre-pared with methanol and not water. The 30:1 concentra-tion of the methanol extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg would be equivalent to 12 g of leaves per kilogram, a very unre-alistic dose. The composition of the extract was not re-ported, and it is not clear how the composition of the methanol extract relates to the composition of aqueous extracts, which are commonly used.

 

Bakre et al. (2013) determined that the lethal dose of 50% of an orally administered ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves in mice was greater than 6.4 g/kg.

 

 

The dietary effects of M. oleifera leaves as a dietary sup-plement for liver function were performed by Zvinorova et al. (2014). Thirty-two weanling rats were randomly assigned to diets of normal rat feed fed at 20% and 14% of body mass, or Moringa-supplemented feeds fed at 20% and 14% of body mass for 5 weeks. Moringa sup-plementation did not affect blood metabolite concentra-tions, liver glycogen, or lipid storage.

The potential toxicological effects of a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg of an aqueous M. oleifera extract as well as oral doses of up to 1000 mg/kg of the same ex-tract for 14 days on rats were examined (Asiedu-Gyekye et al., 2014). The authors noted that no overt adverse reactions were observed at these doses, and no histo-pathological findings were found. Small but statistically significant dose-dependent increases in several liver en-zymes were observed. A dose of 1000 mg/kg in a rat is equivalent to over 30 times a typical 400 mg dose of an aqueous extract in an 80-kg human.

 

The genotoxicity of an aqueous M. oleifera seed extract was assessed using three separate assay systems including the Ames assay (Rolim et al., 2011). The seed extract was not genotoxic without metabolic activation, and did not pose a risk to human health. The effect of a hexane extract of M. oleifera leaves on reproductive organs of male rats was examined (Cajuday and Pocsidio, 2010). The extract was given orally at doses of 17, 170, and 1700 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. A dose-dependent increase in testis and epididymis weights, in seminiferous tubule diameter, and epididy-mal epithelium thickness without change in plasma gonadotropin levels was observed. The authors con-cluded that the changes were associated with an in-crease in spermatogenesis.

 

For the sake of completeness, several studies involv-ing M. oleifera seeds and roots will be described, although the results cannot be directly compared or equated with studies involving leaves. Cytotoxicity of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds was evaluated by Araújo et al. (2013). Following 14 days of the extract administration (500 and 2000 mg/kg) in mice, no signs of systemic toxicity were observed, and all the animals sur-vived. There were no changes in organ indices between treatment and control groups. Small but insignificant changes were observed in erythrocytes, platelets, hemo-globin, and hematocrit. All values remained within the normal range.

 

A methanol extract of seeds of M. oleifera were screened phytochemically for chemical components and used for acute and subacute toxicity studies in rats (Ajibade et al., 2013). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glyco-sides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at an extract dose of 4000 mg/kg, mortality was recorded at 5000 mg/kg. No adverse effects were observed at concentrations lower than 3000 mg/kg. The authors concluded that methanol extracts of seeds of M. oleifera are safe for nutritional use.

 

Paul and Didia (2012) investigated the effect(s) of methanol extract of M. oleifera root on the histo-architecture of the liver and kidney of 24 guinea-pigs. Experimental conditions included daily intraperitoneal injections of the root extract at doses of 3.6, 4.6, and 7.0 mg/kg, and control for 3 weeks. Histological sections

 

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© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.                                Phytother. Res. 29: 796–804 (2015)

 

798                                                          S. J. STOHS AND M. J. HARTMAN

 

 

of all treated groups had ballooning degeneration of the liver, suggesting time-dependent hepatotoxicity rather than a dose-dependent response. Examination of the kidneys, demonstrated mild tubular damage and inter-stitial inflammation in the 4.6 mg/kg group, while the 7.0 mg/kg group had infiltration of the interstitium by inflammatory cells and amorphous eosinophilic mate-rials. No information was provided regarding extract composition or degree of concentration. The results of this study cannot be compared or equated with studies involving aqueous extracts of leaves. This study involved a methanol extract of roots, which was given intraperitoneally and not orally.

 

In summary, based on human, animal, and in vitro studies, and the extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans, various preparations of M. oleifera leaves including aqueous extracts appear to be exceed-ingly safe at the doses and in the amounts commonly utilized.

Published in Resarches

Author|Prof.Dr./ Aboelfetoh M. Abdalla

Moringa oleifera has long been used in traditional med-icine. While data collected from human subjects are limited,

several trials demonstrating potential benefits for treating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia primarily in people with type 2 diabetes have been published.

In a single dose study with six type 2 diabetic subjects, the feeding of 50 g of a M. oleifera leaf powder with a standard meal on a one-time basis decreased blood glucose levels by 21% (William et al., 1993). The authors concluded that the reduced blood glucose response to M. oleifera was not due to alterations in insulin secretion.

Kumari (2010) treated type 2 diabetic subjects with 8 g of powdered M. oleifera leaf in a tablet form per day for 40 days. A total of 46 subjects were involved in the study. At the end of the study, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose were 28% and 26% lower, respectively, in the treated subjects. Furthermore, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were 14%, 14%, 29%, and 15% lower rela-tive to the control group.

 

 

Nambiar et al. (2010) examined the anti-dyslipidemic effects of M. oleifera in 35 type 2 diabetic subjects. The treated group received 4.6 g of a leaf powder in a tablet form daily for 50 days. Compared with the control group, the treated subjects experienced a 1.6% decrease in total plasma cholesterol and a 6.3% increase in HDL. Comparing this study with the previous studies suggests that higher doses may be more effective.

Ghiridhari et al. (2011) conducted a study in which 60 type 2 diabetic subjects were given two M. oleifera leaf powder tablets per day or placebo for up to 3 months. Unfortunately, the weight of the tablets and therefore the actual dose of the leaf powder were not given. After 3 months, postprandial blood glucose had decreased by 29% relative to the control group, while hemoglobin A1C, an index of glycosylation related to blood glucose levels, decreased by 0.4%.

In another human study, Kushwaha et al. (2012) studied 30 postmenopausal women who were supple-mented daily with 7 g of M. oleifera leaf powder for a period of 3 months. A control group also consisted of
30 postmenopausal women. The data revealed significant increases in serum glutathione peroxidase (18.0%), su-peroxide dismutase (10.4%), and ascorbic acid (44.4%), with decreases in malondialdehyde (16.3%; lipid peroxi-dation), markers of antioxidant properties. In addition, a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose levels (13.5%) as well as an increase in hemoglobin (17.5%) was observed. No adverse effects were reported.

In summary, the previous human studies indicate that
whole leaf powders of M. oleifera given orally exhibit significant anti-hyperglycemic, anti-dyslipidemic, and antioxidant effects in human subjects without produc-tion of adverse effects. None of these studies involved the use of leaf extracts.

As this research has a  great importance as we move on research or experiments on animals now move on to the research to humans exhibiting in this file, an entire paper published for the first time in Egypt and the Arab world through us, where our effort is widely used in the framework of search and blogging, translation, and what We got  through the Egyptian scientific Society Research for Morinja ,We are pleased that Castle Journal, which is leading an awareness campaign in support of the tree Moringa in Egypt and support the efforts of the scientific research that on the track we could produce medicines and food, and contribute to the production of the national economy by providing an effective treatment for many of the  humans and animal . we hope that this campaign and what we offer from the research effort and the results confirmed the validity of what we do to be in favor of the nation and all the peoples.

Author|

Prof.Dr./ Aboelfetoh M. Abdalla
Head of The Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa
National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Published in Resarches

Author|Dr. Hanaa H. Abd El Baky

 

The seed oil of Egyptian Moringa peregrina was examined with respect to physicochemical properties, unsaponifiable and fatty acids profiles,

tochopherols and phenolic contents, anticancer and antioxidant activities. Moringa oil showed a better overall quality, its acid,

peroxide, iodine, saponification values were 0.02 mg KOH/g oil, 0.01 meq O2/kg oil, 67 I2 g/100 g oil and 177 mg KOH/g.

The unsaponifiable of Moringa was found to contain high amounts of hydrocarbon fraction C12 to C32 and phytoesterol fractions

were found rich in campesteol, clerosterol and  sitosterol compounds. The major fatty acids were identified as oleic (C18:1 9, 65.36%)

and linoleic (C18:3 6, 15.32%).

Tocopherols and phenolic in oil accounted for 20.35 and 48.31 mg/100 g. Moringa oil showed high growth inhibition against

three human cancer cell lines, breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and colon carcinoma

(HCT-116) (In vitro), with IC50 values of 2.92, 9.40 and 9.48 µg/ml, respectively. The Moringa showed remarkable antioxidant activity,

compared with that of commonly used antioxidants (-tocopherol, BHT and BHA) as determined by five antioxidant assays

includes, free radical scavenging of DPPH, ABTS, .OH, anion-scavenging capability and reducing power. These results strongly

suggested its potential use Moringa as non-conventional seed crop for high quality oil and as candidate in the area of natural

anticancer and antioxidant compounds.

Use of Moringa stenopetala leaves extract as plant bioregulators
Effect of irrigation bread wheat plants with sea water (10 and 20% v/v), spraying with Moringa stenopetala leaves extract (5 gL-1 dry weight)

cultivated under normal and stress conditions were studied. Plant bioregulators (Oxalic acid at 200 ppm) at the vegetative growth

stage on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant components, activity of some antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation products, growth

parameters, mineral content and economic yield were estimated. Irrigation of wheat plants with sea water led to an increase in Na+ ion,

activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and total peroxidase and TBARs components. In contrast,

the contents of photosynthetic pigments and yield components were reduced. Furthermore, the overall growth of wheat plants was

interrupted by irrigation with sea water (10 and 20%) and the effect was pronounced at higher level (20%). Application of Oxalic acid

had a slight effect on plant growth, antioxidant behavior and activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants irrigation with sea water compared

with that in stressed wheat plants. Application of algal extracts significantly increased the contents of total chlorophyll and antioxidant

phenomenon. In additional, application of Moringa stenopetala leaves extract exhibited strong positive correlation with increase in fresh

weight (FW), grain weight and yield components. It is concluded that productive purpose of wheat crop by mean of brackish water

(at 20 v/v level) is possible under a level of economical value through its application of Moringa stenopetala extracts.

 

Author|Dr. Hanaa H. Abd El Baky
Prof. of Plant Biochemistry
National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

Published in Resarches
Monday, 22 May 2017 22:28

Renew of Moringa cultivation in Egypt

Prof. Dr. Said Abdelhalim Saleh

      Moringa is a native plant and is grown wild in Red Sea belts and Southeast Asia. It is a fast-growing tree and

cultivated mainly in semi-arid, tropical and subtropical areas. Moringa is one of the world’s most useful plants, where, all Moringa parts are edible and have long been consumed by humans. Moringa is rich in protein, minerals and vitamins, etc. Thus, it has growing international interest among NGOs, scientists and the private sector, as a source of food supplement for human and livestock.

In Egypt, little knowledge is known about Moringa, although Moringa peregrina is a native tree and growing wild in SINAI mountains since 3000 BC. The ancient Egyptians used its oil for skin protection from sun as well as for wound healing. This article introduces Moringa for cultivation as non-traditional crop in Egypt and its application uses as a good nutritional plant. The Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa started re-cultivation of Moringa oleifera at the beginning of 2010. We planted tens of thousands of seedlings during the last five years and the cultivated areas of Moringa are annually increasing. Also, there is growing demand by the consumers for Moringa and all its products, where it carries the aspects of humanitarian to poor people for being a dietary supplement for humans and animals, and the importance of medical according to wide use in folk medicine. For this reason, Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa is seeking to expand Moringa cultivation in Egypt as medical herb or vegetable with high nutritional value and introduce its practical application in nutritional uses and animal feed, etc. Moringa is a multipurpose tree and model for agriculture in SINAI area and newly reclaimed land, where it has high resistance to drought, salinity and high temperatures. Many activities in multidisciplinary fields were conducted during the last few years, where several trips were carried out to collect the wild Moringa plants from SINAI mountains and Red Sea belts. The research team of our project visited SINAI area (AL-TOUR) and HALAYEP & SHALATEEN regions (GABAL ELBA). We aimed to discover and recognize the Egyptian flora in these areas and to collect wild materials of Moringa peregrina. The original people (BEDWEEN) in SINAI area and HALAYEP and SHALATEEN helped our research team to reach the wild Egyptian species of Moringa at different tree distribution among mountain valleys. Many number of Moringa peregrina trees exist inside the mountains were found.

Many thousands of Moringa oleifera seeds were sown in seedling trays at DOKKI Greenhouses site during the last period. The seedlings of Moringa oleifera were transferred and cultivated at the Farms in AL-SALAM village and AL-SHABAB village in middle of SINAI Peninsula and at Experimental Farm of the National Research Centre in BEER ABO KALAM in south of SINIA. Also, we transferred Moringa seedlings to SHALATEEN region on the Red Sea belt and cultivated them at 6 different cultivation areas and 7 Governmental Administrations. We use intensive cultivation in spacings of 15 x 60 cm, resulting in approximately 40000 plants in feddan (4200 m2) for leaves production and to cultivate Moringa plants in spacings of 2 x 3 m, resulting in 700 trees in feddan (4200 m2) for seed production. The plant growth and its behavior evaluated to determine the optimal conditions for cultivation of Moringa oleifera plants to get maximum yield and best quality of Moringa product. Several field trips to SINAI farmers were conducted to follow up the cultivated Moringa plants and to apply optimum treatments for cultivation of Moringa oleifera plants to get maximum yield and best quality. The team work of the Agricultural Division studied the best agronomic of dates and farming methods and fertilizer requirements for Moringa to ensure getting the best product quality with high nutritional value in order to achieve increased concentration of active substances and the same desired effect for better applications uses, especially, nutrition and animal feed. In the first experiment, the effect of different formula of fertilizers was studied. The second experiment investigated several plant densities. The third experiment is aiming to evaluate the response of Moringa oleiferacultivated in two different soil types to different foliar application rates of Nitrogen and Potassium fertilization. In the fourth experiment, we are trying to cultivateMoringa oleifera under inter cropping system with fruit trees such as Valencia Orange trees and Hollywood Plum trees at different cultivation spaces to know the suitable spaces between Moringa oleifera and fruit trees under inter cropping system.

We achieved many good recommendations for Moringa farmers as follows:

  • The combination of both organic with chemical fertilizers plus microbial inoculation is recommended, where there is a positive trend to increase Moringa productivity (the best product quantity and quality).
  • Concerning the distance among Moringa plants, after planting Moringa at three different agricultural distances to be given three densities plant for unit area, we found that all vegetative traits recorded on plants such as plant height and stem diameter and number of leaves per plant and the total weight of the plant, fresh or dry weights, chlorophyll increased with increasing the agriculture distance between plants.
  • Moringa plants cultivated in sandy soil showed a better response in all vegetative growth characters (plant height and number of leaves/plant), pod yield and its components (number of pods/plant, mean pod length and number of seeds/plant) compared to those cultivated in calcareous soil.
  • Moringa production can be sustained even in calcareous soils by simple foliar application treatments of Nitrogen and Potassium. All foliar application treatments improved the vegetative growth characters, yield and pod quality as well as chemical contents (total chlorophyll, vitamin C, N, K and Ca) of leaves compared to untreated control. The combined treatment of N and K ranked first in increasing Moringa growth and its productivity, followed by the single N and lastly the single K treatment.
  • Moringa consumers have more information about Moring products and their benefits and quality for nutrition. So, we can recommend using Moringa for human nutrition and animal feeding.
  • The cultivation of Moringa seeds directly into the soil and\or using seedlings system is recommended.

 

  • In conclusion, we introduced Moringa plants to Egyptian farmers and consumers as nontraditional vegetable crop. The cultivated areas of Moringa have been increased. Good recommendations for Moringa farmers were applied. Other experiments are still running and data has not completed yet. Once we collect data, the results will mention in other article.

More about author|

Prof. Dr./ Said Abdelhalim Saleh

Researcher Professor at Horticultural Crops Technology Dept.,

Agricultural & Biological Research Division,

National Research Centre

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