Castle Journal

Castle Journal

On Monday, Mount Sinabung volcano in North Sumatra, Indonesia, erupted, and this is the third eruption since last Saturday, when it released an ash plume that reached 4,460 meters high.

The eruption of the volcano again sent a cloud of ash and smoke 7,500 meters into the air, and there were no reports so far of casualties.

The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazards Mitigation in Indonesia said Monday's eruption occurred at 10:16 am local time (03:16 GMT) and continued thereafter.

Mount Sinabung volcano has been erupting periodically since September 2013, when it displaced tens of thousands of people.

Source: Agencies

By:Nadeemy Haded


European Union countries are discussing measures they can take against Belarus, but they are waiting for a full picture of what happened during the presidential elections that took place there last Sunday, amid loud protests.

The official representative of the European Commission, Piotr Stano, said in a press conference today, that "in order to make a decision, it is necessary to have a picture of everything that happened on election day."

In response to a question about possible sanctions against Minsk, Stano said: "It is necessary to fully clarify the situation, exchange views, and then agree on how to respond."

"Everyone is interested in a quick reaction, but the issue is very serious and requires deeper consultations between the member states of the European Union," Stano said.

According to him, now no one is in a hurry to talk about sanctions or other measures, but "everything is possible if there is an agreement between the member states."

The presidential elections took place in Belarus on Sunday, August 9th. According to preliminary official data, the current president of the country, Alexander Lukashenko, won by 80.08%, followed by the representative of the opposition, Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, with a score of 10.09%.

But Tikhanovskaya headquarters announced that it does not recognize the results of the Central Election Commission, noting that the data received from polling stations in all districts of the republic showed that it got 70-80%.

On Sunday and Monday, several cities in Belarus (Belarus) witnessed unauthorized mass protests. Demonstrators erected garbage bins in central Minsk. Police used tear gas, water cannons and stun grenades to disperse them. Earlier, the Belarus Interior Ministry reported that about 3 thousand people were arrested as a result of these measures.

Source: "Novosti"

By:Nadeemy Haded


Three Russian "MiG-31" fighters intercepted an American "Global Hawk" drone over the Chukotka Sea.

"On August 11, the Russian airspace monitoring devices over the neutral waters of the Chukotka Sea detected an air target approaching the Russian border," said a statement by the National Defense Administration in the Russian Federation today, Tuesday.

The statement added, "To intercept the target, three MiG-31 air defense fighters took off in the eastern military region."

The statement indicated that the Russian crews from a safe distance "recognized it as a" R-Q4V - Global Hawk "drone belonging to the US Air Force.

The statement concluded: “After the R-Q Global Hawk drone diverted from the Russian state’s borders, the Russian fighters returned safely to their base. All Russian MiG-31 flights were carried out in accordance with international rules for the use of airspace. The US Air Force R-Q4V-Global Hawk drone is allowed to violate the borders of the Russian state.

Source: Sputnik

By:Nadeemy Haded

As seems to be the case, if the Beirut explosion was caused by thousands of tonnes of ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse, the explosion reveals the fatal potential of this common agricultural chemical.

What is ammonium nitrate?

With the chemical formula NH4NO3, ammonium nitrate is a naturally occurring, highly soluble white crystalline solid, more commonly known as saltpetre.

Ammonium nitrate is largely found in the Atacama Desert in chile from which it is mined. In present time, the chemical element used in synthetic is totally produced by reacting ammonia with nitric acid.

**What is it used for?**

As a high-nitrogen fertilizer, ammonium nitrate is chiefly used in agriculture. The chemical is widely used being more stable under most conditions in addition to its low manufacturing cost in comparison to other expensive nitrogen sources.

It is also a key component of** **ANFO, (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil), an industrial explosive used in mining, quarrying, and civil construction and accounting for 80% of all the industrial explosives used in US.

Ammonium nitrate is not considered as volatile or dangerous in itself; however, under certain conditions it can be fatal.

To make sure it is safe, most countries have imposed certain regulations to control its storage.

**What makes ammonium nitrate explode?**

Under certain circumstances, ammonium nitrate can turn from a stable compound into an explosive one, even without fuel or external catalysts.

It is considered as an "active material", one that produces heat as it decomposes, similar to the way heat is generated by rotting material in a compost heap.

A sufficient quantity of ammonium nitrate can generate heat that is enough to start a continuous fire without the need for a catalyst such as a flame.

As it burns, ammonium nitrate goes through chemical changes that lead to the production of oxygen, precisely what a fire needs to keep going and get bigger. As it heats up the chemical can fuse together, creating a seal or plug.

The space behind the plug keeps on being heated and gases form.

Hot gas expands, but, behind the plug, it has nowhere to go. Eventually, the gas will break through the seal and the force of that will trigger an explosion.

**Fertiliser bombs, the terrorist's weapon of choice**

Due to its low cost and availability, fertiliser has been used to make bombs. The ammonium nitrate is like the engine behind the explosion, but it also requires an igniter and fuel.

The first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion of the igniter.

The energy of the ignition wave causes the ammonium nitrate to vaporise - becoming a gas immediately. The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed.

The gas released from the decomposing fertiliser is what drives the explosion. The rapid release of oxygen, along with the energy from the ignition wave, ignites the fuel.

When the liquid fuel ignites, it rapidly burns, and even more gas is released.

**Fertiliser bomb attacks**

**:: The Baltic Exchange** building in the City of London was hit by a one-tonne fertiliser bomb planted by the IRA in April 1992. The blast in St Mary Axe killed three people, including a 15-year-old girl.

:: **Bishopsgate **in the City of London was hit with a one-tonne fertiliser bomb by the Provisional IRA in April 1993. One person died and 40 were injured. The bomb - hidden in a tipper truck - left a crater 40ft wide and 20ft deep.

:: **Oklahoma City **- a bomb** **targeted the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building in April 1995 and killed 168, although an unmatched body part suggests the toll was actually 169. Bomber Timothy McVeigh was executed by lethal injection in 2001. Co-conspirator Terry Nichols was jailed for life.

Docklands -A massive car bomb detonated beneath South Quay station in London's Docklands in February 1996. The 1,000lb device killed two men, ended a 17-month IRA ceasefire and caused £85m of damage.

Manchester - **The IRA struck Manchester city centre with a 3,300lb bomb, injuring more than 200 people. No one was killed due to a coded warning phoned in more than an hour before the blast, at 11am on a Saturday morning in June 1996.

It was the largest bomb to explode in Britain since the Second World War.

Source: skynews

by ... Maiada Mossad

Former German Environment Minister, Member of Parliament from the "90 Greens Alliance", Juergen Trittin, described the US Senate threat to impose sanctions on a German port over the northern torrential "declaration of economic war."

"The (American) interference in the sovereignty of Germany and the European Union has reached an unprecedented level of aggression, and it should not go unanswered," Trittin said in a statement to ADPK.

He added that the companies participating in the "Northern Torrent-2" project need "protection from Washington's methods."

This statement comes in response to a speech made by three members of the US Senate, in which they demanded the official in charge of the port in the German city of Sassnitz to stop work to support the construction of the Russian project "Northern Torrent-2", otherwise the port is threatened with American sanctions, which will lead to its "financial destruction." ".

The "Northern Torrent-2" is a project to extend a natural gas pipeline from Russia to Germany across the bottom of the Baltic Sea.

Source: Novosti

By:Nadeemy Haded


The foundation of Brazilian billionaire Jorge Lehmann revealed its intention to cooperate with other investors to finance a project to build a factory for the production of an emerging anti-corona virus vaccine, which AstraZeneca is working on developing.

According to the statement issued by the Lehman Foundation, 18 million dollars will be allocated to build the plant that will produce the "AstraZeneca" vaccine.

And according to "Reuters", the factory will be able to produce about 30 million doses of the vaccine per month, starting next year.

Brazilian volunteers are participating in vaccine tests developed by the British "AstraZeneca" in cooperation with the University of Oxford, and the University of São Paulo is conducting experiments in Brazil, with funding from the Lehman Foundation as well.

On Friday, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the registration of 50,230 new cases of Coronavirus in the country, and 1079 deaths due to disease during the past twenty-four hours.

According to the ministry's data, Brazil has recorded 2 million 962 thousand and 442 cases of the virus since the outbreak of the epidemic, while the official death toll from Covid-19 disease rose to 99,572 people in the second worst outbreak of the Corona virus in the world after the United States.

Source: Agencies

By:Nadeemy Haded


A recent American study revealed that people with heart attacks were at greater risk of death during the Corona crisis, because they tried as much as possible not to go to the hospital.

According to CNN, researchers from the Providence Heart Institute conducted a study in which they analyzed data from more than 15,000 people who had heart attacks, during the period between December 30, 2019 and May 16.

The researchers noted a noticeable decrease in the rate of hospitalization for heart attack patients, because patients feared the worst in light of the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic.

The study revealed a significant decline in the number of heart attack patients who were admitted to hospitals, especially after the twenty-third of last February.

Hospitals in the United States and other countries in the world focused on people with the Corona epidemic, during the current year, which made people with other health disorders find it difficult to obtain treatment.

The study indicated the ages of patients who are hospitalized as a result of a heart attack, and indicated that their average age has significantly decreased, because the elderly have become reluctant to go to health institutions, because they are more susceptible to "Covid 19" disease.

The change did not stop at this point, as people who were hospitalized during the Corona crisis spent a shorter period of treatment, and the likely reason is that health officials were keen to allocate beds to treat Corona cases.

The study warned of a significant increase in deaths due to heart attacks, especially among those who had severe symptoms, that is, those who had a disorder of blood vessels, so blood and oxygen became unable to reach the heart muscle.

Source: Agencies

By:Nadeemy Haded

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 Castle Journal is an international newspaper with daily electronic edition, received the international license by the United Kingdom number 10675, and accredited by the Egyptian Embassy in London, owned by Abeer Almadawy

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