Castle Journal

Castle Journal


The US State Department accused the Chinese Communist Party of deliberately ignoring air quality and polluting land and water in the world to achieve its economic program, even if at the expense of the Chinese people.

"The Chinese people are the real victims of the reckless environmental policies and measures of the Chinese Communist Party, as the party is now exporting the unsustainable development model through the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative," she added in a tweet on Twitter.

Earlier, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo accused China of trying to pursue democracy defenders living outside its borders.

He wrote on Twitter: "The United States of America condemns the attempt of the Chinese Communist Party to pursue democracy defenders living outside China, especially in the United States of America."

Recently, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Wang Wenbin criticized US "hostile" statements against her country, stressing that "the Chinese people will not be intimidated by the words and actions of some American politicians against China, and they will work with the people of other countries to build a brighter future for humanity."

Source: Agencies

By:Nadeemy Haded


There are no words that can describe the value and the importance of Ar-razi among not only the Arab scientists, but scientists in general. He was a peculiar encyclopedic scientist. He was one of the earliest Arab physicians. He was also one of the founders of modern chemistry. He studied different branches of knowledge such as medicine, philosophy, chemistry and so on. For several centuries, he was the main reference for scientists especially in medicine.

**His Birth and Early Life**

Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariyyah Ar-Raazi was born around 250 A.H. (864 A.C). in Rey, in Iran. He studied chemistry, logic, philosophy and other branches of knowledge. In his early years, he was known for his intelligence, genius, and excellence. When he was thirty years old, he went to the center of culture and sciences, Baghdad, in order to study chemistry and philosophy, but he paid special attention to medicine. He was the student of the famous physician Ali Ibn Sahl At-Tabari. the `Abbasid caliph `Adhud Ad-Dawlah Ibn Buwayh, senior minister in `Abbasid caliph, summoned Ar-Raazi to Baghdad and appointed him as the head of the `Adhudian Hospital. After that Ar-Razi become a famous physician not only his time, but also overtime.

**His Unique Achievements and Inventions**

Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was one of the first pioneers who has great contributions until the present day in different fields such as medicine, chemistry, pharmacology, and physics.

**His Achievements in Medicine and Pharmacology:**

1- Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was the first scientist who differentiated between smallpox and measles and he provided us with a precise description of both diseases and outlined the symptoms of each.

2- He was the first scientist who innovated “sutures”.

3- He was the first scientist who produced “mercurial ointment”.

4- He is considered one of the pioneers of experimental research in medicine; he made medical experiments first on animals and then took notes of their effect. He was the first scientist who made the “mercury” experiment and its salts on monkeys in order to study their effect on their bodies.

5- He was the first scientist who used “sterilized strings” in wounds.

6- He was the first scientist who paid attention to the “hereditary infection” as he classified some illnesses to “hereditary factors”.

**His Opinion and wisdom**

One of his opinions is that medicine should be used at first as a means of protection instead of using it as a means of treatment and cure after that. One of his famous sayings is that “if you could treat patient using (healthy) food, instead of using drugs. But if you were compelled to do that, use drugs instead of compound drugs”.

Ar-raazi is also considered the first scientist who paid attention to the impact of “psychological effects” in treatment. As an evidence on his wisdom, Ar-raazi always advised his students to give their patients a good impression about their health and they are in a good health and will recover soon as the performance of the body is greatly affected by the psychological mood. if the psychological mood of the patient is good, the performance of the body will respond quickly in contrast to when the psychological mood is bad.

Ar-raazi followed several means in “clinical medicine” which involved monitoring the patient in bed and recording and symptoms or any disorders in order to provide proper diagnosis through checking the symptoms on skin and eyes, and testing breath, temperature, pulse and urine.

As an evidence of his intelligence, he developed an “innovative method” in order to choose the best location to build the hospital. He used this method by placing some pieces of meat in different places in the city while watching which one of them will take more time to become rotten. Of course, the best locations to build hospitals are the ones which have good and healthy environment and that which would be the least effective in making the meat rotten.

**His Achievements in Chemistry:**

1- Scientists consider Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi as the father of modern chemistry. His great attributions in this science became very clear when he classified the known materials into four categories: metal, plant, animals, and derivative materials. He also divided metals into six categories according to their characteristics and attributes.

2- Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was the first scientist who referred to “Sulfuric acid” and he called it as “Vitriol oil” or “Green vitriol”. He also prepared some other acids in his laboratory and the methods which he followed in preparing them are still used till now.

3- He was the first scientist who extracted “Alcohol” from distilling fermented starchy and saccharine material.

4- He was one of the first scientists who applied chemical knowledge/ the effect of chemistry in medicine and to recognize the effect of drugs on activating chemical reactions in the patient's body.

5- He was the first scientist who differentiated between “Soda” and “Potassium”. He also prepared some poisonous liquids from “Vinegar”.

**His Achievements in Physics:**

Ar-Raazi was interested in determining the “Qualitative intensity” of liquids, and developed a special scale for measuring it, which he named: "The Physical Scale". In addition, he was one of the first scientists who criticized “Euclid's theory of vision” which claimed that vision occurs due to a ray that is emitted from the eye to the visible mass. Ar-Raazi’s opinion was that vision occurs because a light beam is emitted from the visible mass to the eye.

**His writings:**

Ar-Raazi wrote a large number of books in all knowledge fields. Some researchers listed about 148 books and treatises authored by him. Some of his books, especially those concerning medicine, were largely widespread and many of them were translated into several languages. European universities relied on many of his writings in teaching, and some of his books were even the top references in medicine until the seventeenth century.

1- Al-Haawi (The Comprehensive):

It is the greatest and most voluminous book written by Ar-Raazi. He spent 15 years writing it. In this great book, Ar-Raazi's skills in medicine are very clear, his accurate observations in addition to deep knowledge.

2- Other books include **"Smallpox and Measles"**, **"Al-Mansoori in Medicine**", **"The Excellent in Medicine**", **"He Who is not Attended by a Physician",** **"Stones in Kidneys and the Bladder"**, **"Benefits of Foods"**, **"The Secret of Secrets"**, **"The Pre-requisites of Vision"**, **"Why Magnets Attract" **and others.

**His Death:**

The scientist and physician, Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi, died in 313 A.H. (925 A.C) when he was in his early sixties.

Source: islamweb

By: Maiada Mossad


**“Donald Trump”,** US President and 2020 Republican presidential nominee, has raised the prospect that he won't accept the results of November election.

Mark Milley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman, wrote in a letter released on Friday responding to questions from two House lawmakers, says: “The US military will not play a role in this year’s election. In the event of a dispute over some aspect of the elections, by law US courts and the US Congress are required to resolve any disputes, not the US military”.

Milley added “I believe deeply in the principle of an apolitical US military and I predict no role for the US Armed Forces in this process.”

This response came when the presidential nominees stoke questions about military involvement in 2020 election.

US President has raised the prospect that “he won’t accept the results in November, claiming without clear evidence that the expected surge in mail-in ballots will make the vote inaccurate and fraudulent.

Trump told Fox News’s **Chris Wallace** last month when asked if he would accept the election results “No, I’m not just going to say yes, I’m not going to say no, and I didn’t last time either.” and continued “I have to see ….”

Joe Biden, Former US Vice President and 2020 Democratic presidential nominee, said in June that he is convinced if military would intervene if Trump rejected the results.

By: Maiada Mossad

Sunday, 30 August 2020 19:54

Dynamic roads


Written by prof./ Mohamed Elmelgy

Electric cars promise a greener future. But current battery technology limits how far you can go on a single charge. One possible workaround: “electric motorways”—roads that will charge your electric vehicle as you drive on it.

The UK government has already spent £200,000 ($300,000) investigating the feasibility of the idea, and is now setting up an 18-month off-road trial. If successful, it hopes to spend some of the £500 million budgeted for promoting the use of low-emission vehicles in the UK on creating these electric motorways.


The president says: Demolition works which is part of two-year long expansion process becomes more than good.

The Egyptian president Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi has opened several national projects in Alexandria, at the top of these project was the redeveloped road Al-Mahmoudiya Axis.

The president inaugurated Many other projects such as in oil sector, in addition to the housing project Bashayer Al-Khair 2, and “triple sewage treatment plant” in Borg El-Arab.

This event was by the attendance of Parliamentary Speaker Ali Abdel-Aal, in addition to Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly and a number of ministers and military leaders.

President Al-Sisi said, speaking on Al-Mahmoudiya Axis, that some Alexandria residents, at first, had rejected this redevelopment project. But now they saw the project’s worth and there are many benefits from it to the city.

The president said that “Al-Mahmoudiya Axis is set to extend to the neighbouring Beheira Governorate”. He also referred to this demolition work which took place during the expansion process which is sought to make the public good great.

President Al-Sisi added “We demolish, to rebuild and the people of Alexandria knew and saw this.”

President Al-Sisi, during the Fourth National Youth Conference in Alexandria in 2018, confirmed on “Al-Mahmoudiya Axis”.

This project will create new opportunities to make the move of life easier as it will provide a new traffic artery in Alexandria, which is the second city and the country’s main port in Egypt, and is set to help reduce crowds of traffic congestion in the city. The project is also set to redevelop the Mahmoudiyah Canal area, which has for many years been neglected, whilst also redeveloping and improving the surrounding areas.

Moreover, this project has provided 15,000 direct job opportunities and 25,000 indirect job opportunities, in addition, it will raise production efficiency, water quality and pressure in networks. This will lead to improving water pressure weakness and interruption in water services across the city. The area was also seen as a prime target for rehabilitation due to the several important factories in the area and for the city’s future expansion.

Al-Sisi had issued a directive, in February 2018, to accelerate the finalisation of current projects, such as the Al-Mahmoudiya Axis and the housing project of Bashayer Al-Kheir in Alexandria Governorate. This presidential directive came during the inauguration of the first phase of a project in order to establish greenhouses, on an area covering 100,000 feddans, in the Matrouh Governorate.

The Al-Mahmoudiya Axis extends for about 23 km, and has been linked with the international coastal road. It includes from six to eight traffic lanes in each direction, with the axis serving four neighbourhoods, namely the Al-Muntazah First, East, Central, and West areas.

By : Maiada Mossad


In his first trip since COVID-19, Zurab Pololikashvili, Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), has commended the Egyptian government for its serious precautionary measures against COVID-19 in its process to recommence tourism. The UNWTO Secretary-General began his visit to Egypt on Saturday in response to Egypt’s Minister of Tourism and Antiquities Khaled El-Anani official invitation. The visit is remarkable since it is the first emergence of Pololikashvili after the resumption of travel and aviation in Spain where the UNWTO is headquartered. A day after his arrival in Hurghada, Pololikashvili made a quick tour to inspect the health measures taken by the Egyptian government in the hotel in which he resides.

Accompanied by the Minister of Tourism and Antiquities, Pololikashvili examined the procedures upon the hotel entrance, for disinfecting luggage, measuring guests’ temperature, hand disinfection, the reception area and housing procedures.

During the visit, the hotel director stressed that the disinfection and sterilization measures are constantly carried out. He also emphasized that the measures taken come in accordance with the WHO approved health standards.

It is scheduled for the Egyptian side and UNWTO Secretary-General to hold meetings with investors in the tourism sector besides visiting several museums and archaeological and tourist sites in Egypt.


By: Maiada Mossaad


South Korea announced that most schools in Seoul and surrounding areas will close and return to online studies, with the latest step in a series of precautionary measures to avoid a surge in infections with the Coronavirus.

The Korean Ministry of Education said today, Tuesday, that all students in Seoul, Incheon and Jeonje Province will study online until September 11, except for last-year high school students.

The start of the spring semester has been postponed several times since March, but with the number of daily infections with the Coronavirus dropping sharply since its peak in February, most South Korean schools reopened in stages between May 20 and June 1.

The Minister of Education, Yu In-hee, said during a testimony that the tests showed that 150 students and 43 school personnel in the Greater Seoul region have been infected during the past two weeks.

The Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 280 new cases of the emerging coronavirus as of midnight Monday, bringing the total number of infections in the country to 17,945, and the number of deaths reaching 310.

This represents a decrease in the number of daily injuries, as the number recorded in the previous twenty-four hours reached 397 until midnight Sunday, the highest daily toll since early March.

Although most of the new infections are concentrated in the densely populated capital region, health authorities say that the country is on the brink of a general outbreak, and called on people to stay in their homes and limit travel.

Source: Reuters

By:Nadeemy Haded

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