Reported by|Abeer Almadawy

Astronomy is one of the ancient sciences upon which all civilizations depended. Egypt had the beginning and the honor of progress and development in this important scientific field. The ancient Egyptian civilization provided the world and the successive civilizations with the most important principles of astronomy which surpassed all the technological progress attained by modern civilization,  there is still a mystery about the possibility of Egyptians to progress in the field of astronomy at ancient times, the matter that pushed scientist to study and research till now.
From here, Egypt has always a pivotal scientific role not only in the Arab and African region, but also in the world.

The Egyptian Astronomy is a prominent role and is the largest telescope in the Arab world and the Middle East and North Africa.

The Observatory follows the National Institute of Astronomical and Geophysical Research, located about 80 km from the center of the capital Cairo and is located on a mountain of 480 meters above sea level.
Kottamia Observatory was established in 1964 and is an extension of the Helwan Observatory, which was established in 1903. It is one of the oldest research institutes for astronomical sciences in Egypt and the Middle East.

The observatory of Kottamia astronomy is a scientific city. It contains the building of the telescope with the big dome, as is the case for the astronomical observatories in the world. The telescope body is so large that it weighs more than 50 tons and its length is 9 meters and its diameter is 74 inches or about 188 cm, the thickness of this mirror is approximately 30 cm, weighs about 2 tons.

The telescope building was designed from double walls to completely isolate it from the surrounding desert environment. The dome of the telescope was built of double-sided  steel by the Austrian company Fosset. The diameter of the telescope is about 19 meters and weighs more than 100 tons. The building is built on steel bars with 26 steel wheels, and there is a waterway in the lower edge of the dome to prevent dust and heat from entering. In this design, the building floor temperature does not exceed 3 ° C even in the hotter days.

 The building also has a large electric elevator to transport the telescope mirror to the basement compartment on the bottom floor. The site also has another small 14-inch telescope of the Celeston type and a number of restrooms equipped for the convenience of the observing scientists. There is also a power plant to operate this equipment and equipment And large electric motors needed for the work of the endoscope .. Also there are two water reservoirs, a garage, a kitchen, engineering laboratories, workshops for electricity and mechanics.

Due to the unique location of the Arab Republic of Egypt, the number of net nights of the sky there is about 250 nights throughout the year. This has been reflected in the accuracy of observations and the purity of images taken from the telescope. Carried out by the Observatory of Katameya Astronomy is his participation in the accurate observations taken to the surface of the moon to choose the landing sites of humans on the moon in the late sixties, in addition to projects and letters and scientific research, which was based on the accuracy of the observations of this telescope ..


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