New high-resolution images allowed scientists to "read the rocks of Mars" and find the first evidence that rivers were present on the Red Planet more than 3.7 billion years ago.
According to scientists at the International Research College to study planetary science in Italy, the images and data that they relied on in their research revealed that the water, which was found on Mars 3.7 billion years ago, has been present on the Red Planet for 100,000 years.
According to the new research, which was published in the journal "Nature Communication" and the website of the American "CNN" news network, the scientists used the photos taken by the NASA probe cameras, very accurate, to study the edge of the crater in the southern half of Mars.
"It is not like reading a newspaper, but high-resolution images allow us to read rocks as if you were standing near a cliff," said study author, geologist and chief scientist at the International Research College for the Study of Planetary Science in Italy, Francesco Salici.
He added: "Unfortunately, we do not have the ability to go up to Mars, to look at the fine details, but the striking similarities with sedimentary rocks on the ground leave little imagination," according to CNN.
Scientists reached these results during their study of the crater long ago because it is one of the largest craters in the solar system, and it extends approximately 9 kilometers.
In the pictures of the edge of the crater, ancient evidence of the existence of a large lake, rivers, delta and canals can be seen in the rock, as reported by the British newspaper The Independent
According to the study, by examining the images, the researchers determined that the ancient rivers extended to a depth of several meters.
When the scientists narrowed their scope to the visible surface layer of the edge of the cliff, they discovered that the rivers were in some respects similar to those on Earth.
The researchers said in their study, "It is these rivers that have constantly diverted their canyons, which has led to the creation of sand banks, similar to the Rhine or rivers that you can find in northern Italy."
Scientists have expressed their belief that the water of Mars was formed as a result of rain, such as rain on Earth.
However, the rocks contained in the high-resolution images showed that the temporal life of water and sediments in the region is relatively short and may have lasted for only 100,000 years.
The scientists pointed out that other rocks have not yet been discovered, or that they are still buried, may be able to show the temporal life of water on the planet.
It is worth noting that the US space agency launched the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, an orbiting spacecraft to explore Mars, on August 12, 2005.