Researches

Research |Prof. Dr. Ahmed El-Sayed Ismail

Professor of Nematology Plant Pathology Dept.,

National Research Centre,

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

 

 

Impact of nematicidal potential of drumstick, Moringa oleifera Lam. ( Moringaceae) as a medicinal plant (1, 2, 3 and 4 plants per pot) as a mix-crop along with tomato cv. Super Strain B against Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis was evaluated under a greenhouse conditions (30 ± 5 ºC) at the National Research Center, Egypt. The nematode final population of nematodes and their rate of build up as well as the root gall index were significantly affected by the number of moringa plants when grown with tomato together. There was a negative correlation between the number of moringa seedlings and the final population of both nematodes. The lowest nematode final population and rate of build up were determined at the highest number of moringa plants (4 plants per pot). The highest number of root gall index (4.1) was found on roots of tomato grown alone, while, the lowest one (0.6) was found on roots of tomato grown with four plants of moringa. This type of control is considered  easy , inexpensive and pollution-free.

Keywords: control; Meloidogyne incognita; Rotylenchulus reniformis ; intercropping; Moringa oleifera.

 Introduction

Root-knot and reniform nematodes have been recognized as the major limiting factor in agricultural production in many parts of the world. The application of synthetic nematicides are usually recommended and even considered to be the most effective method for limiting the damage of plant parasitic nematodes in crops. However, these chemicals are costly, highly toxic and present some environmental problems (Zureen and Khan, 1984; Adesiyan et al., 1990).In fact; synthetic nematicides have been reported to contaminate underground water thereby posing serious hazards to man and animals (Alam and Jairajpuri, 1990). Alternatively, research has focused on antagonistic plants (Alam et al., 1977, Yassin and Ismail, 1994, Javed et al., 2008, Claudius- Cole et al., 2010, Abdelnabby and Abdelrahman, 2012 and Onyeke and Akueshi, 2012).Several benefits may result from the identification of the specific antagonistic phytochemicals to plant nematodes, whether they occur in a field or a laboratory. These compounds can be developed for use as nematicides themselves, or they can serve as model compounds for the development of chemically synthesized derivatives with enhanced activity or environmental friendliness (Chitwood, 2002).

Moringa plants have been found suppress the population of phytonematodes by releasing nematotoxins into the soil when grown with susceptible crops and / or used their extracts (Claudius- Cole et al., 2010 and Onyeke and Akueshi, 2012).                    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different numbers of moringa plants as a mix-crop along with tomato for control of M. incognita and R. reniformis under a greenhouse conditions.

Materials and Methods

Three week old seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)  cv.  Super Strain B  grown in sterilized soil were transplanted singly to the center of 25 cm clay pots containing 3 kg sterilized sandy loam soil (1:1 w:w). One week after planting, the tomato seedlings were inoculated with about 3000 freshly hatched juveniles of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood or 3000 unswollen females of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford and Olivera). Three days after inoculation, one to four seedlings of 21 days old drumstick, Moringa oleifera Lam (obtained from the Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa, National Research Center, Egypt) grown in sterilized soil were transplanted into the periphery of each pot. Tomato seedlings planted without moringa plants served as check. Each treatment was replicated six times. Then, all pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design under a greenhouse conditions at 30 ± 5 ºC. Fifty five days after inoculation, plants were taken off, nematode counts were calculated. Nematode populations in soil were extracted by sieving and decanting technique (Barker 1985). The nematodes from roots were extracted using the Young incubation method (Southey 1970). Root-knot index was rated 1-5 scale (Sasser et al. 1984).Also, the reproduction rate of the nematode was determined based on Oostenbrink (1966) as follows: final nematode population (Pf) / initial nematode population (Pi).

Statistical analysis

The obtained data were analyzed statistically (Gomez and Gomez 1984) by using the Fisher ,s Least Significant Differences (LSD).

Results and Discussion

Data presented in tables 1 & 2 showed that moringa plants were found to be suppressive to M. incognita and R. reniformis build-up. The tested number of moringa plants significantly reduced number of nematodes on roots, number of juveniles recorded from soil as well as root gall index. Consequently, the nematode final populations and rate of build -up were greatly suppressed. It is also interesting to notice that there was a positive correlation between number of moringa plants and % reduction in nematode final population of both nematodes as well as % reduction in root gall index caused by the root-knot nematode. Therefore, treatment with 4 plants of moringa caused the greatest reduction in the root gall index (85.4 %). On the other hand, there was a negative relation between the number of  moringa plants and nematode final populations of the root-knot and reniform nematodes as well as their rate of build-up(Tables 1 & 2).

In general, this study state that there was significant increase in the nematode final population and rate of build-up of M.incognita around tomato grown alone, however, in treatments having different numbers of Moringa oleifera (1-4 plants/ pot) with tomato, the nematode final population and rate of build-up decreased. Also, the root gall index on tomato was 4.1 when it grown alone, but declined to 0.6 when tomato grown along with four plants of moringa (Table 1).

Similarly in case of R. reniformis (Table 2), the nematode final population and rate of build-up decreased sharply when tomato was grown along with different numbers of moringa (3189, 2082, 1429, 1251nematode; respectively for the nematode final population and 1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 fold; respectively for rate of build-up) while, they attained the higher values in the case of tomato grown alone (7647 and 2.6; respectively). These data indicate that the decrease in the nematode final population and rate of build-up by growing Moringa oleifera was mainly attributed to the toxic nature of its root exudates. These findings are in conformity with those of Alam et al.(1977) , Korayem and Osman (1992), Claudius- Cole  et al.( 2010) and Onyeke and Akueshi (2012).They reported that there are several plants which suppress the population of different plant parasitic nematodes by releasing nematotoxins into the soil , not phytotoxic to the plants , rather they caused increased plant growth. Furthermore, Guzman (1984) found water extracts of moringa to be as toxic to M. incognita as standard pesticides.

Types of resistance to root-knot nematode were reported by Fassuliotis (1979). He indicated that there are two types of resistance. The first is the pre-infectional resistance, which operator before the nematode penetrates the surface of the roots. The second is the post-infectional resistance which is manifested after the nematode penetrates the plant tissues. Data obtained in this study indicated that moringa plants have two types of resistance, in regard to, most of M. incognita larva failed to penetrate roots of tomato when they grown with moringa plants. Claudius- Cole et al. (2010) and Onyeke and Akueshi (2012) have demonstrated that M.incognita did not multiply on Moringa oleifera. Moreover, M. oleifera extracts have been reported to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Rahman et al., 2009), fungi (Jabeen et al., 2008) and antinematode, M. incognita (Onyeke and Akueshi, 2012), which is suggestive of the presence of broad spectrum antibiotic compounds in the plant. Also, Emmanuel et al.(2011) stated that seedcake of Moringa oleifera is good fertilizer for maize plant as nutrient. They found that this seed cake can be used without long pre-decomposition period of the organic matter to give an improved plant yield as compared with other organic matter from animal dung and plant compost which require long periods for decomposition and cautious use (Villablanca, 2007).

It also shows that there was no adverse effect on the plant. This suggests that the activity of pathogenic micro organism as shown in other organic matter source is greatly reduced in the Moringa oleifera seed cake fertilizer. Present findings assume potential importance in developing plant-based natural nematicides for nematode control.

Acknowledgement

The author is grateful to Prof. Dr. Abo-Elfetoh  M A , Head of both Technological Ornamental Crops Department  and the Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa, National Research Center , Egypt.

References

Abdelnabby H M  ,  Abdelrahman S M 2012.Nematicidal activity of selected flora of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology. 11:106-124.

Adesiyan S O , Caveness F E , Adeniji M O , Fawole B .1990.Nematode pests of tropical crops.Heinemann Educational Books, Nigeria Ltd. P.114.

Alam M M , Jairajpuri M S .1990. Natural enemies of nematodes. In: nematode bio-control (Aspects and Prospects).M S Jairajpuri, M M Alam, I Ahmad (eds.). CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi, India pp. 17-40.

Alam M M , Saxena S K , Khan a M . 1977. Influence of interculture of marigold and margosa with some vegetable crops on plant growth and nematode population. Acta. Bot. Indica 5:33-39.

Barker K R. 1985. Nematode extraction and bioassays. In: Barker K R, Carter C C, Sasser J N, editors. An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne – Vol. II. Raleigh (USA): North Carolina State University Graphics. P. 19-35.

Chitwood D J 2002.Phytochemicals based strategies for nematode control. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 40:221-249.

Claudius-Cole A O, Aminu A E, Fawole B. 2010. Evaluation of plant extracts in the management of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.). Mycopath. 8:53-60.

 Emmanuel S A, Emmanuel B S, Zaku S G, Thomas S A .2011. Biodiversity and agricultural productivity enhancement in Nigeria: application of processed Moringa oleifera seeds for improved organic farming. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America (5): 867-871.

 

Fassuliotis G .1979. Plant breeding for root-knot nematode resistance. pp. 425-453. F. Lamberti and C. E. Taylor, eds. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne species). London and New York, Acad. Press.

Gomez K A, Gomez A A.1984. Statistical procedures for agriculture research. 2nd ed. New York (USA): John Wiley. 780 pp.

Guzman RS, 1984.Toxicity screening of various plant extracts,Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamb.) Rich ex Walp., Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC, Artemisia vulgaris Linn., Eichornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Allium cepa Linn., Allium sativum Linn and Moringa oleifera Lam. against Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood and Radopholus similis Cobb and characterization of their nematicidal components. Ph.D Thesis University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna Place College, Laguna (Philippines) .197pp. (Cited from Claudius-Cole et al., 2010).

Jabeen R, Shahid M, Jamil A, Ashraf M.2008.Microscopic evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of Moringa oleifera. Pakistan J. Bot. 40:1349-1358.

Javed N , Gowen S R , El-Hassan S A , Inam-Ul-Haq M , Shahina F , Pembroke B .2008.Efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) formulations on biology of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) on tomato. Crop Prot. 27:36-43.

Korayem A M , Osman H A .1992. Über nematizide Wirkungen der Henna-Pflanze Lawsonia inermis gegen den Wurzelnematoden Meloidogyne incognita. Anzeiger fur Schädlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 65:14-16.

Onyeke C C , Akueshi C O. 2012. Infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on Africa yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex  A. Rich.) Harms accessions as influenced by botanical soil amendments. African J. of Biotechnology. 11:13095-13103.

Oostenbrink M C. 1966. Major characteristics of the relation between nematodes and plants. Wageningen, The Netherlands, Mededlingen van Landbouwhogeschool. 66:1-46.

Rahman M M,Sheikh MMI,Sharma SA, Islam MS, Rahman MA,Rahman MM,Alam MF.2009.Antibacterial activity of leaf juice and extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam against some human pathogenic bacteria. J. Nat. Sci. 8:219-227.

Sasser J N, Carter C C , Hartman K M .1984. Standardization of host suitability studies and reporting of resistance to root-knot nematodes. North Carolina State Univ. Graphics, Raleigh N C. 7pp.

Southey J F. 1970. Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Technical Bulletin No. 2. London (UK): HMSO. 148pp.

Villablanca E (2007). Why Organic Fertilizers are Safer to Use than Inorganic Fertlizers;http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/333446/why_organic_fertilizers_are_safer_to_pg2.html?cat=32; Accessed: June 16, 2010

Yassin M Y , Ismail A E .1994.Effect of Zinnia elegans as a mix-crop along with tomato against Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 67:41-43.

Zureen S , Khan M I .1984. Nematicidal activity of some plant latices. Pakistan J. Nematology 2:69-77.

 

 

 

Table1. Effect of Moringa oleifera as a mix-crop with tomato cv. Super Strain B on Meloidogyne incognita

Treatments

Root-gall Index *

(0-5)

Reduction

%

Nematode counts **

In root

In soil

Total

Reduction

%

Rate of build-up  @

Tomato alone (Control)

 

Tomato + one plant of moringa

 

Tomato + two plants of moringa

 

Tomato + three plants of moringa

 

Tomato + four plants of moringa

 

LSD 0.05

LSD 0.01

 

4.1

 

2.8

 

1.8

 

1.3

 

0.6

 

0.21

0.34

-

 

31.7

 

56.1

 

68.3

 

85.4

 

-

-

210

 

98

 

66

 

45

 

19

 

28.2

39.3

17162

 

4830

 

3311

 

3203

 

1700

 

608.3

845.1

17372

 

4923

 

3377

 

3248

 

1719

 

602.1

812.4

-

 

71.7

 

80.6

 

81.3

 

90.1

 

-

-

5.8

 

1.6

 

1.1

 

1.08

 

0.6

 

-

-

  • Root gall index: 0 = no galls; 5 = 100 + galls per root (Sasser et al., 1984). **Each value is mean of four replicates.

           @ Rate of build-up = Pf / Pi, where Pf = final population, and Pi = initial population.

 

 

Treatments

Root-gall Index *

(0-5)

Reduction

%

Nematode counts **

In root

In soil

Total

Reduction

%

Rate of build-up  @

Tomato alone (Control)

 

Tomato + one plant of moringa

 

Tomato + two plants of moringa

 

Tomato + three plants of moringa

 

Tomato + four plants of moringa

 

LSD 0.05

LSD 0.01

 

4.1

 

2.8

 

1.8

 

1.3

 

0.6

 

0.21

0.34

-

 

31.7

 

56.1

 

68.3

 

85.4

 

-

-

210

 

98

 

66

 

45

 

19

 

28.2

39.3

17162

 

4830

 

3311

 

3203

 

1700

 

608.3

845.1

17372

 

4923

 

3377

 

3248

 

1719

 

602.1

812.4

-

 

71.7

 

80.6

 

81.3

 

90.1

 

-

-

5.8

 

1.6

 

1.1

 

1.08

 

0.6

 

-

-

  • Root gall index: 0 = no galls; 5 = 100 + galls per root (Sasser et al., 1984). **Each value is mean of four replicates.

           @ Rate of build-up = Pf / Pi, where Pf = final population, and Pi = initial population.

 

 

Table2. Effect of Moringa oleifera as a mix-crop with tomato cv. Super Strain B on Rotylenchulus reniformis

Treatments

Nematode counts *

Rate of

 build-up **

In root

In soil

Total

Reduction (%)

Tomato alone (Control)

 

Tomato + one plant of moringa

 

Tomato + two plants of moringa

 

Tomato + three plants of moringa

 

Tomato + four plants of moringa

 

LSD 0.05

LSD 0.01

 

310

 

 

120

 

 

94

 

 

38

 

 

34

 

 

22.7

27.3

7337

 

 

3069

 

 

1988

 

 

1391

 

 

1217

 

 

298

385

7647

 

 

3189

 

 

2082

 

 

1429

 

 

1251

 

 

424

568

-

 

 

58.3

 

 

72.8

 

 

81.3

 

 

83.6

 

 

-

-

2.6

 

 

1.1

 

 

0.7

 

 

0.5

 

 

0.4

 

 

-

-

          *Each value is a mean of four replicates.  **Rate of build-up = Pf / Pi, where Pf = final population,

          and Pi =  initial population.

 

---------------------------

about researcher|Prof. Dr. Ahmed El-Sayed Ismail Professor of Nematology Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, 12622 Home:+202-37462091 Cell Phone:+2-0185275901 Lab phone: +202-33371362 ¡Ext. 1166 Fax : +202-33370931 E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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