Dr.Mahmoud Abdelghany A. M. Hashem
Ph.D Biochemistry Researcher Regional Center for Food and Feed Agricultural Research Center
Moringa Excellent Healer
Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina and Moringa stenopetala are three species belong to a single genus family Moringaceae that has fourteen species, (Ganesana et al., 2014). There is limited information about the chemical, anti-nutritional contents of the flour and characterization of the oil extracted from the seeds, (Mustapha et al., 2015). Moringa has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and have been used as a treatment for many diseases.
The leaves, fruits, flowers and immature pods of this tree are edible and they form a part of traditional diets in many countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. Apart from its dietary importance, local folklore credits Moringa with a lot of herbal potency, (Ozumba et al, 2009).
Some of the uses of the plant include use in alley cropping, animal forage, as domestic cleaning agent, as fertilizer, for live fencing, as medicine, as ornamentals and it is resistant to most pests. Drumstick or Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose tropical tree that belongs to Moringaceae family and has originated from Himalayan tract in Northwestern part of India, (Mendieta-Araica et al., 2012 and Pandey et al., 2011).
Seed flour from Moringa oleifera is widely used as a natural coagulant for water treatment in developing countries, (Santos et al., 2005). In developing countries, Moring has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable land care, (National Research Council, 2006). Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolic, (Anwar et al., 2007).
Mature seeds yield (38–40%) edible oil called ben oil from its high concentration of behenic acid. The refined oil is clear, odorless and resists rancidity, can also be used as a natural source of behenic acid, which has been used as an oil structuring and solidifying agent in margarine, shortening, and foods containing semisolid and solid fats, eliminating the need to hydrogenate the oil. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer, (Rashid et al., 2008). Moringa flowers are used in treating malnutrition in traditional settings.
The plant seeds contain hypotensive activity, strong antioxidant activity and chelating property against arsenic toxicity, (Santos et al., 2009). “Diabetes” means siphon and “mellitus” stands for sweet. Diabetes is a complex multisystem disorder characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and disturbances in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism, it is an insidious disease, (Rakesh et al., 2008).
Although the prevalence of diabetes is increasing, diabetes is not homogenously distributed throughout the population, (Michael, 2010). Chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes causes gyration of body proteins that in turn leads to secondary complications affecting eyes (retinopathy), kidneys (nephropathy), nerves (neuropathy) and arteries (atherosclerotic vascular disease). The international diabetes federation (IDF, 2014) has predicted that the number of individuals with diabetes increased from 382 million in 2014 to 592 million, in 2035 with 80% of the disease burden in low and middle-income countries, (IDF, 2014) according to recent estimation, the global population is approaching the midst of diabetes pandemic.
The plant kingdom represents a rich storehouse of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes and could serve as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years, (Bhoomika et al., 2007). Many of traditional medicinal plants have been used successfully since ancient times to treat diabetes and related complications because plants have been the major source of drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and other ancient systems in the world, though their biologically active compounds are unknown. Ethnobotanical information indicates that more than 800 plants are used as traditional remedies for the treatment of diabetes due to their effectiveness, less side effects and relatively low cost, (Rathod et al., 2008).
Botanical products can improve glucose metabolism and the overall condition of individuals with diabetes not only by hypoglycemic effects but also by improving lipid metabolism, antioxidant status and capillary function, (Alam et al., 2003). Recently numerous traditional medicinal plants were tested for their antidiabetic potential in the experimental animals. Based on several studies, reviews, articles and researches: Ganesana et al., (2014), Mahmood, et al., (2010), Adebayo, et al., (2011), MPFI, (2013); the need for extensive documentation and focused research on the family as a whole and not only on some species “e.g. Moringa oleifera” has motivated us to bridge the information gap in this area. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine and evaluate (in vitro) the chemical composition of leaves and seeds contents of Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina, and Moringa stenopetala from five places under Egyptian conditions.
In addition, to evaluate (in vivo) the biological and antidiabetic effect of the extractions of Moringa oleifera, Moringa peregrina, and Moringa stenopetala leaves on STZ-induced diabetic male albino rats. In a recent study of Ph..D Mahmoud Abdelghany (2015) titled: Biochemical Studies on Some Moringa Species in North Africa On Moringa olifiera (MO), Moringa stenopetala (MS), Moringa peregrina (MP) belong to the family Moringaceae. The two aims of this investigation were to determine and evaluate (in vitro) the chemical composition of leaves and seeds contents for MO, MS and MP which were collected from five places under Egyptian conditions. In addition to evaluate (in vivo) the effects of ethanolic and aqueous extract of MO, MS and MP leaves on streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes rats, by single intraperitoneal injection 65 mg/kg b.w. Many proximate chemical analyses carried out The results of the chemical composition analysis showed that Moringa species leaves and seeds have high significant nutritional values; the moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, energy, elements;
Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, and vitamins C and A. Also, Moringa leaves recorded significant increases for amino acids compositions, amino acids/protein ratio, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities against DPPH free radical. Meanwhile, the oil proprieties evaluated and the results showed significant decreases in; free fatty acids percentage’s, peroxide values, iodine values and showed significant increases for saponification values. Also, the fatty acids compositions were evaluated and the major saturated fatty acids; palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and behenic (C22:0) recorded high significant values. On the other hand, the main unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1n9); Eicosenoic (C20:1n9) and Palmitoleic acids (C16:1n7) recorded significant values. The biological experiment was divided into two stages; in the first stage, 42 male albino rats were divided into 7 groups. Group1; normal control, group 2; diabetic control, diabetic groups 3, 4 and 5 treated with MOL ethanolic extracts 600, 450 and 300 mg/kg b.w, respectively and diabetic groups 6 and 7 were treated with aqueous 190 and 225 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Fasting (FBG) and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Creatinine, Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) were evaluated. Significant reduction p