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Wednesday, 10 January 2018 01:38

Moringa Oleifera and hepatic fibrosis

By: Nermeen Mohamed Shaffie

Professor of Histology and Histochemistry-NRC

 

    Among the many new health supplements that appear on the market each year, Moringa oleifera stands out as having several unique and significant nutritional qualities. While the benefits derived from Moringa oleifera have been used for centuries by developing nations and peoples as an important nutritional supplement with a variety of medicinal properties, it is only recently that these benefits have been documented in both the botanical and medical literature.

With significant botanical and medical published research, the addition of Moringa oleifera into the daily diet shows considerable promise as an adjunct to improving health in a variety of important ways.

The leaf, seed and fruit powder of Moringa oleifera are naturally rich sources of vitamins and minerals. According to an analysis of the edible portion of Moringa oleifera pods, fresh (raw) leaves and dried leaf powder, they have been shown to contain as much of the following water-soluble vitamins: vitamin B1 (thiamine),  vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). In addition, they contain as much of the following fat-soluble vitamins: vitamin A, and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate).

Moringa oleifera contains, Choline; fiber; and several key minerals:  Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Copper, Iron, and Selenium. One of the most significant benefits of Moringa oleifera is the ability of this plant to provide very low-calorie, quality protein dietary supplementation (containing 19 of the 20 most common amino acids), (nearly 1/3 of the edible portion). The roles that amino acids play in the fundamental processes of tissue formation, regeneration and function are so distinctive that this class of substances is considered to be the primary component of all living matter.

Also, the amino acids are precursors of many other important biomolecules, including various hormones, vitamins, coenzymes, alkaloids and porphyrins.  Humans do not have the ability to synthesize all of the amino acids required for normal, good health. Those that must be supplied in our diets are called essential amino acids. Moringa oleifera contains all of the eight amino acids considered essential.

Although proteins found in meat, eggs and milk are considered to have the best nutritional value, such foods are those which should be limited due to their negative effect on serum cholesterol. Moreover, persons who either cannot or who choose not to consume these foods (lactose intolerant, vegetarians) may run the risk of developing a protein deficiency.

Daily stress and pregnancy may also cause a deficiency of amino acids, and greater consumption of protein is required for these conditions for optimal health. For such individuals, Moringa oleifera is an important source of these vital nutrients.

Moringa root bark, but not the rest of the plant, contains specific alkaloids such as moringinine, which increase heart and blood vessel tonus.

Antioxidant compounds reduce the cellular damage inflicted by toxic compounds or by normal metabolism and living processes in plants, animals, and humans. Most plant antioxidants are also anti-inflammatory and cancer-preventive. Examples of antioxidants are flavonoids (color pigments found in many plants). To date, Moringa is known to contain a number of powerful antioxidant flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol. Many vitamins in Moringa qualify as potent antioxidants as well: vitamins A (as betacarotene), C and E.

 

A diet rich in plants such as Moringa can significantly improve human health by:

* Reducing cholesterol levels and triglycerides ("bad" fats in the serum). * Controlling blood sugar and helping normal sugar and energy balance. * Offering vitamins and minerals vital for maintaining normal physiology. * Offering powerful antiaging and anti-inflammatory natural substances, many with anticancer properties.

A study was designed in the National Research Center (NRC) to evaluate the protective and therapeutic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against CCL4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats of eleven groups (eight animals each) were used in this study. Four of these groups were given (MOLE) in different doses for a month and then given CCL4 for 3 months to evaluate the protective effect of the extract. Another 4 groups were given CCL4  for 3 months to induce hepatic fibrosis and then given (MOLE) in different doses to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the extract, the rest of these groups were used as control groups. Histopathological, histochemical and DNA studies were conducted. Histopathological examination documented that CCL4 produced massive damage to liver tissue in the form of excessive fibrosis, cellular infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes. DNA study showed decrease of DNA values (hypoploidy) of hepatocytes caused by CCL4. Our results revealed that the damaging effect of CCL4 on hepatic tissue was clearly reduced by using MOLE treatment. Histochemical findings confirmed the histopathological results, where the DNA study indicated that MOLE treatment has shown amelioration of the DNA content in examined cells and gave DNA values better than those of animals group treated with CCL4 alone. All the above results were dose dependent. But best results were obtained by using MOLE as a therapeutic agent.

 

 

Published in Resarches

Research |Prof. Dr. Ahmed El-Sayed Ismail

Professor of Nematology Plant Pathology Dept.,

National Research Centre,

Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

 

 

Impact of nematicidal potential of drumstick, Moringa oleifera Lam. ( Moringaceae) as a medicinal plant (1, 2, 3 and 4 plants per pot) as a mix-crop along with tomato cv. Super Strain B against Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis was evaluated under a greenhouse conditions (30 ± 5 ºC) at the National Research Center, Egypt. The nematode final population of nematodes and their rate of build up as well as the root gall index were significantly affected by the number of moringa plants when grown with tomato together. There was a negative correlation between the number of moringa seedlings and the final population of both nematodes. The lowest nematode final population and rate of build up were determined at the highest number of moringa plants (4 plants per pot). The highest number of root gall index (4.1) was found on roots of tomato grown alone, while, the lowest one (0.6) was found on roots of tomato grown with four plants of moringa. This type of control is considered  easy , inexpensive and pollution-free.

Keywords: control; Meloidogyne incognita; Rotylenchulus reniformis ; intercropping; Moringa oleifera.

 Introduction

Root-knot and reniform nematodes have been recognized as the major limiting factor in agricultural production in many parts of the world. The application of synthetic nematicides are usually recommended and even considered to be the most effective method for limiting the damage of plant parasitic nematodes in crops. However, these chemicals are costly, highly toxic and present some environmental problems (Zureen and Khan, 1984; Adesiyan et al., 1990).In fact; synthetic nematicides have been reported to contaminate underground water thereby posing serious hazards to man and animals (Alam and Jairajpuri, 1990). Alternatively, research has focused on antagonistic plants (Alam et al., 1977, Yassin and Ismail, 1994, Javed et al., 2008, Claudius- Cole et al., 2010, Abdelnabby and Abdelrahman, 2012 and Onyeke and Akueshi, 2012).Several benefits may result from the identification of the specific antagonistic phytochemicals to plant nematodes, whether they occur in a field or a laboratory. These compounds can be developed for use as nematicides themselves, or they can serve as model compounds for the development of chemically synthesized derivatives with enhanced activity or environmental friendliness (Chitwood, 2002).

Moringa plants have been found suppress the population of phytonematodes by releasing nematotoxins into the soil when grown with susceptible crops and / or used their extracts (Claudius- Cole et al., 2010 and Onyeke and Akueshi, 2012).                    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of different numbers of moringa plants as a mix-crop along with tomato for control of M. incognita and R. reniformis under a greenhouse conditions.

Materials and Methods

Three week old seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)  cv.  Super Strain B  grown in sterilized soil were transplanted singly to the center of 25 cm clay pots containing 3 kg sterilized sandy loam soil (1:1 w:w). One week after planting, the tomato seedlings were inoculated with about 3000 freshly hatched juveniles of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood or 3000 unswollen females of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis (Linford and Olivera). Three days after inoculation, one to four seedlings of 21 days old drumstick, Moringa oleifera Lam (obtained from the Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa, National Research Center, Egypt) grown in sterilized soil were transplanted into the periphery of each pot. Tomato seedlings planted without moringa plants served as check. Each treatment was replicated six times. Then, all pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design under a greenhouse conditions at 30 ± 5 ºC. Fifty five days after inoculation, plants were taken off, nematode counts were calculated. Nematode populations in soil were extracted by sieving and decanting technique (Barker 1985). The nematodes from roots were extracted using the Young incubation method (Southey 1970). Root-knot index was rated 1-5 scale (Sasser et al. 1984).Also, the reproduction rate of the nematode was determined based on Oostenbrink (1966) as follows: final nematode population (Pf) / initial nematode population (Pi).

Statistical analysis

The obtained data were analyzed statistically (Gomez and Gomez 1984) by using the Fisher ,s Least Significant Differences (LSD).

Results and Discussion

Data presented in tables 1 & 2 showed that moringa plants were found to be suppressive to M. incognita and R. reniformis build-up. The tested number of moringa plants significantly reduced number of nematodes on roots, number of juveniles recorded from soil as well as root gall index. Consequently, the nematode final populations and rate of build -up were greatly suppressed. It is also interesting to notice that there was a positive correlation between number of moringa plants and % reduction in nematode final population of both nematodes as well as % reduction in root gall index caused by the root-knot nematode. Therefore, treatment with 4 plants of moringa caused the greatest reduction in the root gall index (85.4 %). On the other hand, there was a negative relation between the number of  moringa plants and nematode final populations of the root-knot and reniform nematodes as well as their rate of build-up(Tables 1 & 2).

In general, this study state that there was significant increase in the nematode final population and rate of build-up of M.incognita around tomato grown alone, however, in treatments having different numbers of Moringa oleifera (1-4 plants/ pot) with tomato, the nematode final population and rate of build-up decreased. Also, the root gall index on tomato was 4.1 when it grown alone, but declined to 0.6 when tomato grown along with four plants of moringa (Table 1).

Similarly in case of R. reniformis (Table 2), the nematode final population and rate of build-up decreased sharply when tomato was grown along with different numbers of moringa (3189, 2082, 1429, 1251nematode; respectively for the nematode final population and 1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 fold; respectively for rate of build-up) while, they attained the higher values in the case of tomato grown alone (7647 and 2.6; respectively). These data indicate that the decrease in the nematode final population and rate of build-up by growing Moringa oleifera was mainly attributed to the toxic nature of its root exudates. These findings are in conformity with those of Alam et al.(1977) , Korayem and Osman (1992), Claudius- Cole  et al.( 2010) and Onyeke and Akueshi (2012).They reported that there are several plants which suppress the population of different plant parasitic nematodes by releasing nematotoxins into the soil , not phytotoxic to the plants , rather they caused increased plant growth. Furthermore, Guzman (1984) found water extracts of moringa to be as toxic to M. incognita as standard pesticides.

Types of resistance to root-knot nematode were reported by Fassuliotis (1979). He indicated that there are two types of resistance. The first is the pre-infectional resistance, which operator before the nematode penetrates the surface of the roots. The second is the post-infectional resistance which is manifested after the nematode penetrates the plant tissues. Data obtained in this study indicated that moringa plants have two types of resistance, in regard to, most of M. incognita larva failed to penetrate roots of tomato when they grown with moringa plants. Claudius- Cole et al. (2010) and Onyeke and Akueshi (2012) have demonstrated that M.incognita did not multiply on Moringa oleifera. Moreover, M. oleifera extracts have been reported to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Rahman et al., 2009), fungi (Jabeen et al., 2008) and antinematode, M. incognita (Onyeke and Akueshi, 2012), which is suggestive of the presence of broad spectrum antibiotic compounds in the plant. Also, Emmanuel et al.(2011) stated that seedcake of Moringa oleifera is good fertilizer for maize plant as nutrient. They found that this seed cake can be used without long pre-decomposition period of the organic matter to give an improved plant yield as compared with other organic matter from animal dung and plant compost which require long periods for decomposition and cautious use (Villablanca, 2007).

It also shows that there was no adverse effect on the plant. This suggests that the activity of pathogenic micro organism as shown in other organic matter source is greatly reduced in the Moringa oleifera seed cake fertilizer. Present findings assume potential importance in developing plant-based natural nematicides for nematode control.

Acknowledgement

The author is grateful to Prof. Dr. Abo-Elfetoh  M A , Head of both Technological Ornamental Crops Department  and the Egyptian Scientific Association for Moringa, National Research Center , Egypt.

References

Abdelnabby H M  ,  Abdelrahman S M 2012.Nematicidal activity of selected flora of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology. 11:106-124.

Adesiyan S O , Caveness F E , Adeniji M O , Fawole B .1990.Nematode pests of tropical crops.Heinemann Educational Books, Nigeria Ltd. P.114.

Alam M M , Jairajpuri M S .1990. Natural enemies of nematodes. In: nematode bio-control (Aspects and Prospects).M S Jairajpuri, M M Alam, I Ahmad (eds.). CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi, India pp. 17-40.

Alam M M , Saxena S K , Khan a M . 1977. Influence of interculture of marigold and margosa with some vegetable crops on plant growth and nematode population. Acta. Bot. Indica 5:33-39.

Barker K R. 1985. Nematode extraction and bioassays. In: Barker K R, Carter C C, Sasser J N, editors. An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne – Vol. II. Raleigh (USA): North Carolina State University Graphics. P. 19-35.

Chitwood D J 2002.Phytochemicals based strategies for nematode control. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 40:221-249.

Claudius-Cole A O, Aminu A E, Fawole B. 2010. Evaluation of plant extracts in the management of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.). Mycopath. 8:53-60.

 Emmanuel S A, Emmanuel B S, Zaku S G, Thomas S A .2011. Biodiversity and agricultural productivity enhancement in Nigeria: application of processed Moringa oleifera seeds for improved organic farming. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America (5): 867-871.

 

Fassuliotis G .1979. Plant breeding for root-knot nematode resistance. pp. 425-453. F. Lamberti and C. E. Taylor, eds. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne species). London and New York, Acad. Press.

Gomez K A, Gomez A A.1984. Statistical procedures for agriculture research. 2nd ed. New York (USA): John Wiley. 780 pp.

Guzman RS, 1984.Toxicity screening of various plant extracts,Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamb.) Rich ex Walp., Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC, Artemisia vulgaris Linn., Eichornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Allium cepa Linn., Allium sativum Linn and Moringa oleifera Lam. against Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood and Radopholus similis Cobb and characterization of their nematicidal components. Ph.D Thesis University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna Place College, Laguna (Philippines) .197pp. (Cited from Claudius-Cole et al., 2010).

Jabeen R, Shahid M, Jamil A, Ashraf M.2008.Microscopic evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of Moringa oleifera. Pakistan J. Bot. 40:1349-1358.

Javed N , Gowen S R , El-Hassan S A , Inam-Ul-Haq M , Shahina F , Pembroke B .2008.Efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) formulations on biology of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) on tomato. Crop Prot. 27:36-43.

Korayem A M , Osman H A .1992. Über nematizide Wirkungen der Henna-Pflanze Lawsonia inermis gegen den Wurzelnematoden Meloidogyne incognita. Anzeiger fur Schädlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 65:14-16.

Onyeke C C , Akueshi C O. 2012. Infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on Africa yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. ex  A. Rich.) Harms accessions as influenced by botanical soil amendments. African J. of Biotechnology. 11:13095-13103.

Oostenbrink M C. 1966. Major characteristics of the relation between nematodes and plants. Wageningen, The Netherlands, Mededlingen van Landbouwhogeschool. 66:1-46.

Rahman M M,Sheikh MMI,Sharma SA, Islam MS, Rahman MA,Rahman MM,Alam MF.2009.Antibacterial activity of leaf juice and extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam against some human pathogenic bacteria. J. Nat. Sci. 8:219-227.

Sasser J N, Carter C C , Hartman K M .1984. Standardization of host suitability studies and reporting of resistance to root-knot nematodes. North Carolina State Univ. Graphics, Raleigh N C. 7pp.

Southey J F. 1970. Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Technical Bulletin No. 2. London (UK): HMSO. 148pp.

Villablanca E (2007). Why Organic Fertilizers are Safer to Use than Inorganic Fertlizers;http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/333446/why_organic_fertilizers_are_safer_to_pg2.html?cat=32; Accessed: June 16, 2010

Yassin M Y , Ismail A E .1994.Effect of Zinnia elegans as a mix-crop along with tomato against Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz 67:41-43.

Zureen S , Khan M I .1984. Nematicidal activity of some plant latices. Pakistan J. Nematology 2:69-77.

 

 

 

Table1. Effect of Moringa oleifera as a mix-crop with tomato cv. Super Strain B on Meloidogyne incognita

Treatments

Root-gall Index *

(0-5)

Reduction

%

Nematode counts **

In root

In soil

Total

Reduction

%

Rate of build-up  @

Tomato alone (Control)

 

Tomato + one plant of moringa

 

Tomato + two plants of moringa

 

Tomato + three plants of moringa

 

Tomato + four plants of moringa

 

LSD 0.05

LSD 0.01

 

4.1

 

2.8

 

1.8

 

1.3

 

0.6

 

0.21

0.34

-

 

31.7

 

56.1

 

68.3

 

85.4

 

-

-

210

 

98

 

66

 

45

 

19

 

28.2

39.3

17162

 

4830

 

3311

 

3203

 

1700

 

608.3

845.1

17372

 

4923

 

3377

 

3248

 

1719

 

602.1

812.4

-

 

71.7

 

80.6

 

81.3

 

90.1

 

-

-

5.8

 

1.6

 

1.1

 

1.08

 

0.6

 

-

-

  • Root gall index: 0 = no galls; 5 = 100 + galls per root (Sasser et al., 1984). **Each value is mean of four replicates.

           @ Rate of build-up = Pf / Pi, where Pf = final population, and Pi = initial population.

 

 

Treatments

Root-gall Index *

(0-5)

Reduction

%

Nematode counts **

In root

In soil

Total

Reduction

%

Rate of build-up  @

Tomato alone (Control)

 

Tomato + one plant of moringa

 

Tomato + two plants of moringa

 

Tomato + three plants of moringa

 

Tomato + four plants of moringa

 

LSD 0.05

LSD 0.01

 

4.1

 

2.8

 

1.8

 

1.3

 

0.6

 

0.21

0.34

-

 

31.7

 

56.1

 

68.3

 

85.4

 

-

-

210

 

98

 

66

 

45

 

19

 

28.2

39.3

17162

 

4830

 

3311

 

3203

 

1700

 

608.3

845.1

17372

 

4923

 

3377

 

3248

 

1719

 

602.1

812.4

-

 

71.7

 

80.6

 

81.3

 

90.1

 

-

-

5.8

 

1.6

 

1.1

 

1.08

 

0.6

 

-

-

  • Root gall index: 0 = no galls; 5 = 100 + galls per root (Sasser et al., 1984). **Each value is mean of four replicates.

           @ Rate of build-up = Pf / Pi, where Pf = final population, and Pi = initial population.

 

 

Table2. Effect of Moringa oleifera as a mix-crop with tomato cv. Super Strain B on Rotylenchulus reniformis

Treatments

Nematode counts *

Rate of

 build-up **

In root

In soil

Total

Reduction (%)

Tomato alone (Control)

 

Tomato + one plant of moringa

 

Tomato + two plants of moringa

 

Tomato + three plants of moringa

 

Tomato + four plants of moringa

 

LSD 0.05

LSD 0.01

 

310

 

 

120

 

 

94

 

 

38

 

 

34

 

 

22.7

27.3

7337

 

 

3069

 

 

1988

 

 

1391

 

 

1217

 

 

298

385

7647

 

 

3189

 

 

2082

 

 

1429

 

 

1251

 

 

424

568

-

 

 

58.3

 

 

72.8

 

 

81.3

 

 

83.6

 

 

-

-

2.6

 

 

1.1

 

 

0.7

 

 

0.5

 

 

0.4

 

 

-

-

          *Each value is a mean of four replicates.  **Rate of build-up = Pf / Pi, where Pf = final population,

          and Pi =  initial population.

 

---------------------------

about researcher|Prof. Dr. Ahmed El-Sayed Ismail Professor of Nematology Plant Pathology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, 12622 Home:+202-37462091 Cell Phone:+2-0185275901 Lab phone: +202-33371362 ¡Ext. 1166 Fax : +202-33370931 E-mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Published in Resarches

 

Prof .Dr. Riad Sedki Riad El-Mohamedy

Prof of fungal plant pathogens, plant pathology Department , National Research Center , Dokki , Cairo , Egypt .

 

Moringa plant follows Moringaceae family, which includes about 13 plant species .The most famous of these species type are   Moringa oleifera followed by African moringa (Moringa estenobitala) then Egyptian Moranga (Moringa briggrana). Moringa is considered a model plant for cultivation in desert areas in newly reclaimed lands, where it bears drought, salinity and high temperatures as well as this tree carry many humanitarian aspects of the poor for being a food

Application of Moringa oleafera extracts as natural products for controlling plant diseases pathogens .

Prof .Dr. Riad Sedki Riad El-Mohamedy

Prof of fungal plant pathogens, plant pathology Department , National Research Center , Dokki , Cairo , Egypt .

 

Moringa plant follows Moringaceae family, which includes about 13 plant species .The most famous of these species type are   Moringa oleifera followed by African moringa (Moringa estenobitala) then Egyptian Moranga (Moringa briggrana). Moringa is considered a model plant for cultivation in desert areas in newly reclaimed lands, where it bears drought, salinity and high temperatures as well as this tree carry many humanitarian aspects of the poor for being a food supplement for humans and animals Numerous studies in many countries of the world noted that ,the plants Moringa is a  vegetable crop , herb medical and is the source of oil production as well as their use in water purification and nutrition of humans and animals .The most dominant investigations on Moringa oleifera .

Many studies and projects have been conducted abroad to take advantage of Moringa in all medical , industrial fields and agricultural .In agriculture ,many formers  uses extracts tonic natural plant and then use it sprayed on corn, wheat, rice and sugar cane plants and others to increase growth and yield as well as the use of seeds and remnants of her time in the feed manufacturing. Also been using leaves extract in the treatment of seeds before planting a stimulant for the germination and thus helps the seed and seedling small escape from injury of soil borne pathogens . Also we can  used moringa extracts against  many fungi, bacteria and viruses that affect humans .

Recently , In Egypt Moringa oleifera has expansions and the cultivation beginning of the 2010 season where it was cultivation of tens of thousands of seedlings during the years 2011 and 2012 in order to increase consumer demand for all its products . As a result of the expansion in the cultivation of moringa in Egypt ,headed vision to maximize the benefit of this blessed tree, especially in the field of combating plant pests, especially in the field of production of natural compounds (natural pesticides) from this tree, and use these natural compounds as alternatives to chemical pesticides against many pathogens that cause a significant loss in the quantity and quality of many agricultural crops. In this concerns Prof. Dr. Riad Mohamedy professorof fungi and plant pathology at Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Center conducted a number of research (publication in magazines specialized scientific) for the use of leaves, roots, seeds and pods extracts and casings seeds as well as extracted from the seed oil as natural compounds (natural biocides) against three groups of plant Pathogenic fungi  . The first group represents the fungi that cause disease wilt and rot the roots and the second group represents the fungi that infect shoots, fruits, flowers and the third group represents a fungal disease in many agricultural crops before and after harvet and during storage. Studies have proved that all the extracts of Moringa have an effective in inhibiting the growth and sporulation of  all fungi under study. He observed that the Moringa seed oil leaves extract and roots have significant effect especially against soil  borne fungi, which calls for use of many pesticides harmful chemical polluters to resist  . Notably, he was noted that  Moringa plants do not infected with any plant pathogens  and the results showed that the plant Moringa is resist to 8 fungi, which cause rot the roots and wilting of many plants. As a result complement these promising results (laboratory) experiments as these extracts and oil plant moringa conducive to the growth and sporulation  up to 100% of any match or exceed some of the pesticides and chemical.

So in many experiment applied under field conditions ,Plant Pathology Department and participate with the Egyptian Association for Scientific moringa, National Center to evaluate and study the impact of extracts, seed of  moringa and  chitosan (a natural compound) in combating disease early (blight) on tomato and potato crops . The results showed that these natural compounds have the effect of effectively (inhibitor of fungi and tonic of resistance in the plant) in the controlling disease resemble the effect of the fungicide .Moreover improve the growth and yield of the plant treatment approximating without treatment. Rate of decline in the intensity of infection blight on potatoes by up to 80% and an increase in yield of up to more than 65% due to spray a compound of the extracts and oil of the plant Moringa Oliveira .Now,  we applied extracts of moringa directly under field conditions for controlling many plant diseases on some economic crops, especially under organic farming system ,and nit has already been reached promising results in the first season 2014/2015 for the cultivation of potatoes, wheat and beans due to the use of natural pesticides from producer Moringa plant.

 

Moringa oliefera plant has resistance against some soil pathogenic fungi

 

 

Antifungal activities of moringa seed oil against soil borne pathogenic fungi

 

supplement for humans and animals Numerous studies in many countries of the world noted that ,the plants Moringa is a  vegetable crop , herb medical and is the source of oil production as well as their use in water purification and nutrition of humans and animals .The most dominant investigations on Moringa oleifera .

Many studies and projects have been conducted abroad to take advantage of Moringa in all medical , industrial fields and agricultural .In agriculture ,many formers  uses extracts tonic natural plant and then use it sprayed on corn, wheat, rice and sugar cane plants and others to increase growth and yield as well as the use of seeds and remnants of her time in the feed manufacturing. Also been using leaves extract in the treatment of seeds before planting a stimulant for the germination and thus helps the seed and seedling small escape from injury of soil borne pathogens . Also we can  used moringa extracts against  many fungi, bacteria and viruses that affect humans .

Recently , In Egypt Moringa oleifera has expansions and the cultivation beginning of the 2010 season where it was cultivation of tens of thousands of seedlings during the years 2011 and 2012 in order to increase consumer demand for all its products . As a result of the expansion in the cultivation of moringa in Egypt ,headed vision to maximize the benefit of this blessed tree, especially in the field of combating plant pests, especially in the field of production of natural compounds (natural pesticides) from this tree, and use these natural compounds as alternatives to chemical pesticides against many pathogens that cause a significant loss in the quantity and quality of many agricultural crops. In this concerns Prof. Dr. Riad Mohamedy professorof fungi and plant pathology at Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Center conducted a number of research (publication in magazines specialized scientific) for the use of leaves, roots, seeds and pods extracts and casings seeds as well as extracted from the seed oil as natural compounds (natural biocides) against three groups of plant Pathogenic fungi  . The first group represents the fungi that cause disease wilt and rot the roots and the second group represents the fungi that infect shoots, fruits, flowers and the third group represents a fungal disease in many agricultural crops before and after harvet and during storage. Studies have proved that all the extracts of Moringa have an effective in inhibiting the growth and sporulation of  all fungi under study. He observed that the Moringa seed oil leaves extract and roots have significant effect especially against soil  borne fungi, which calls for use of many pesticides harmful chemical polluters to resist  . Notably, he was noted that  Moringa plants do not infected with any plant pathogens  and the results showed that the plant Moringa is resist to 8 fungi, which cause rot the roots and wilting of many plants. As a result complement these promising results (laboratory) experiments as these extracts and oil plant moringa conducive to the growth and sporulation  up to 100% of any match or exceed some of the pesticides and chemical.

So in many experiment applied under field conditions ,Plant Pathology Department and participate with the Egyptian Association for Scientific moringa, National Center to evaluate and study the impact of extracts, seed of  moringa and  chitosan (a natural compound) in combating disease early (blight) on tomato and potato crops . The results showed that these natural compounds have the effect of effectively (inhibitor of fungi and tonic of resistance in the plant) in the controlling disease resemble the effect of the fungicide .Moreover improve the growth and yield of the plant treatment approximating without treatment. Rate of decline in the intensity of infection blight on potatoes by up to 80% and an increase in yield of up to more than 65% due to spray a compound of the extracts and oil of the plant Moringa Oliveira .Now,  we applied extracts of moringa directly under field conditions for controlling many plant diseases on some economic crops, especially under organic farming system ,and nit has already been reached promising results in the first season 2014/2015 for the cultivation of potatoes, wheat and beans due to the use of natural pesticides from producer Moringa plant.

 

Moringa oliefera plant has resistance against some soil pathogenic fungi

 

 

Antifungal activities of moringa seed oil against soil borne pathogenic fungi

 

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Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa oleifera

 

By researchers | Sidney J. Stohs* and Michael J. Hartman

 

AdvoCare International, Plano, TX 75074, USA

Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihyper-tensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

 

Keywords: Moringa oleifera; leaf extract; anti-hyperglycemic; anti-dyslipidemic; antioxidant; chemoprotectant

 

INTRODUCTION

Moringa oleifera Lam. is a tree that grows widely in many tropical and subtropical countries. It is grown commercially in India, Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, Hawaii, and throughout Asia and Southeast Asia. It is known as the drumstick tree based on the appearance of its immature seed pods, the horse-radish tree based on the taste of ground root prepara-tions, and the ben oil tree from seed-derived oils. In some areas, immature seed pods are eaten, while the leaves are widely used as a basic food because of their high nutrition content (Thurber and Fahey, 2009; Mbikay, 2012; Razis et al., 2014). No human clinical trials have been conducted looking at the efficacy of M. oleifera for treating undernutrition.

 

Seeds, leaves, oil, sap, bark, roots, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine. Moringa leaves have been characterized to contain a desirable nutritional balance, containing vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids (Moyo et al., 2011; Teixeira et al., 2014; Razis et al., 2014). Additionally, the leaves are reported to contain various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics, and carotenoids (Alhakmani et al., 2013; Vongsak et al., 2014). According to several commentaries (Anwar et al., 2007; Mbikay, 2012; Razis et al., 2014), various preparations of M. oleifera are used for their antiinflammatory, antihyperten-sive, diuretic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic,

 

* Correspondence to: Sidney J. Stohs, 7068 Maumee Valley Court, Frisco, TX 75034, USA.

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

antihyperlipidemic, antineoplastic, antipyretic, antiulcer, cardioprotectant, and hepatoprotectant activities. The therapeutic potential of M. oleifera leaves in treating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia was reviewed by Mbikay (2012). Razis et al. (2014) summarized po-tential health benefits of M. oleifera, focusing on their nutritional content as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics.

 

SAFETY STUDIES

No adverse effects were reported in any of the hu-man studies that have been conducted to date, and these studies will be described in more detail later in the text. Furthermore, various preparations have been and continued to be used around the world as foods and as medicinals without the report of ill effects. Several animal studies have specifically assessed the potential toxicity of various preparations on M. oleifera.

 

The safety of an aqueous leaf extract given orally to rats at doses of 400, 800, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg body weight was examined (Adedapo et al., 2009). The treatment was either an acute single dose or given daily for 21 days except the highest dose. Various pa-rameters were assessed including blood cell counts and serum enzyme levels. The authors concluded that consumption of M. oleifera leaves at doses of up to 2000 mg/kg were safe. A dose-dependent decrease in body weights of the rats occurred over the 21 days of the study.

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Received 08 October 2014

Revised 20 December 2014

© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Accepted 14 February 2015 This is an open access article under the terms of the  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

 

 

 MORINGA OLEIFERA SAFETY AND EFFICACY

Asare et al. (2012) examined the potential toxicity of an aqueous leaf extract of M. oleifera in several different experimental systems. In one set of experiments, rats were given 1000 and 3000 mg/kg of the extract, and the animals were assessed for up to 14 days. The M. oleifera leaf extract was shown to be genotoxic based on blood cell analysis at the 3000 mg/kg dose, a dose that greatly exceeds commonly used doses. A dose of 1000 mg/kg was deemed safe and did not produce genotoxicity when given to rats, a dose still in excess of commonly used doses.

 

Ambi et al. (2011) divided 24 rats into four groups and fed varying amounts of M. oleifera powdered leaves mixed with standard livestock feed (25%, 50%, 75%, and control) for 93 days. Total amount of M. oleifera leaves consumed was not quantified. Following the experimental period, some organs of the treated animals had observable microscopic lesions with the 75% group developed necrosis of hepatic cells, splenic blood ves-sels, and neuronal glial cells. The control animals had no observable microscopic lesions in all organs exam-ined. No photomicrographs of any tissues were pro-vided. The amounts of leaves consumed, although not quantified by the authors, greatly exceeded doses that would be typically used in either rats or humans. For example, if the rats consumed an average of 15–20 g of chow per day, even at the low dose of 25% of the chow, the daily dose would be approximately 15–20 g of leaves per kilogram for an adult rat, which would equate to 195–260 g for an 80-kg human.

 

The toxicity of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves has also been evaluated in mice (Awodele et al., 2012). In an acute study, mice were administered the extract at up to 6400 mg/kg orally and 1500 mg/kg intra-peritoneally. In a subchronic study, mice received 250, 500, and 1500 mg/kg orally for 60 days. The lethal dose of 50% LD50 was estimated to be 1585 mg/kg. No signif-icant effects were observed with respect to hematologi-cal or biochemical parameters or sperm quality. A high degree of safety was observed on oral administration.

 

The toxicological effects associated with consump-tion of 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of methanol extract of M. oleifera for 8 weeks was performed in 30 rats (Oyagbemi et al., 2013). The extract was a 30:1 con-centration. All experimental animals that received M. oleifera had a significant increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, contrary to what is observed with an aqueous extract (Adedapo et al., 2009). Rats that received M. oleifera at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed a sig-nificant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, as-partate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. It should be noted that the extract was pre-pared with methanol and not water. The 30:1 concentra-tion of the methanol extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg would be equivalent to 12 g of leaves per kilogram, a very unre-alistic dose. The composition of the extract was not re-ported, and it is not clear how the composition of the methanol extract relates to the composition of aqueous extracts, which are commonly used.

Bakre et al. (2013) determined that the lethal dose of 50% of an orally administered ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves in mice was greater than 6.4 g/kg.

The dietary effects of M. oleifera leaves as a dietary sup-plement for liver function were performed by Zvinorova et al. (2014). Thirty-two weanling rats were randomly assigned to diets of normal rat feed fed at 20% and 14% of body mass, or Moringa-supplemented feeds fed at 20% and 14% of body mass for 5 weeks. Moringa sup-plementation did not affect blood metabolite concentra-tions, liver glycogen, or lipid storage.

The potential toxicological effects of a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg of an aqueous M. oleifera extract as well as oral doses of up to 1000 mg/kg of the same ex-tract for 14 days on rats were examined (Asiedu-Gyekye et al., 2014). The authors noted that no overt adverse reactions were observed at these doses, and no histo-pathological findings were found. Small but statistically significant dose-dependent increases in several liver en-zymes were observed. A dose of 1000 mg/kg in a rat is equivalent to over 30 times a typical 400 mg dose of an aqueous extract in an 80-kg human.

 

The genotoxicity of an aqueous M. oleifera seed extract was assessed using three separate assay systems including the Ames assay (Rolim et al., 2011). The seed extract was not genotoxic without metabolic activation, and did not pose a risk to human health. The effect of a hexane extract of M. oleifera leaves on reproductive organs of male rats was examined (Cajuday and Pocsidio, 2010). The extract was given orally at doses of 17, 170, and 1700 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. A dose-dependent increase in testis and epididymis weights, in seminiferous tubule diameter, and epididy-mal epithelium thickness without change in plasma gonadotropin levels was observed. The authors con-cluded that the changes were associated with an in-crease in spermatogenesis.

 

For the sake of completeness, several studies involv-ing M. oleifera seeds and roots will be described, although the results cannot be directly compared or equated with studies involving leaves. Cytotoxicity of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds was evaluated by Araújo et al. (2013). Following 14 days of the extract administration (500 and 2000 mg/kg) in mice, no signs of systemic toxicity were observed, and all the animals sur-vived. There were no changes in organ indices between treatment and control groups. Small but insignificant changes were observed in erythrocytes, platelets, hemo-globin, and hematocrit. All values remained within the normal range.

 

A methanol extract of seeds of M. oleifera were screened phytochemically for chemical components and used for acute and subacute toxicity studies in rats (Ajibade et al., 2013). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glyco-sides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at an extract dose of 4000 mg/kg, mortality was recorded at 5000 mg/kg. No adverse effects were observed at concentrations lower than 3000 mg/kg. The authors concluded that methanol extracts of seeds of M. oleifera are safe for nutritional use.

 

Paul and Didia (2012) investigated the effect(s) of methanol extract of M. oleifera root on the histo-architecture of the liver and kidney of 24 guinea-pigs. Experimental conditions included daily intraperitoneal injections of the root extract at doses of 3.6, 4.6, and 7.0 mg/kg, and control for 3 weeks. Histological sections

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© 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.                   

                            Phytother. Res. 29: 796–804 (2015)

 

798   S. J. STOHS AND M. J. HARTMAN

 

 

of all treated groups had ballooning degeneration of the liver, suggesting time-dependent hepatotoxicity rather than a dose-dependent response. Examination of the kidneys, demonstrated mild tubular damage and inter-stitial inflammation in the 4.6 mg/kg group, while the 7.0 mg/kg group had infiltration of the interstitium by inflammatory cells and amorphous eosinophilic mate-rials. No information was provided regarding extract composition or degree of concentration. The results of this study cannot be compared or equated with studies involving aqueous extracts of leaves. This study involved a methanol extract of roots, which was given intraperitoneally and not orally.

 

In summary, based on human, animal, and in vitro studies, and the extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans, various preparations of M. oleifera leaves including aqueous extracts appear to be exceed-ingly safe at the doses and in the amounts commonly utilized.

 

           

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