Written by |Dr.Tamer Ashour
Mohamed Ali Pasha , the man who build the modern state of Egypt and took it from the darkness to the light by building a new civilization led the Arabic world and invaded the African life...
This man struggle to have great empire as he was very eager to compete in front of the Ottman empire and he succeed to create new civilization in Egypt to be the first state in all the Arabic world to invade the world again with its sciences and modern life...
Through the following lines we are showing how Mohammed Aly could to be good ruler in Egypt but also what were his mistakes against Egypt...
our aim to light certain period of the Egyptian life may it clarify the wrong concept about Egyptians desire to share the new world with their own civilization
He was appointed as the Ottoman Sultan’s Viceroy, Egypt’s Governor on May 17, 1805; ruled Egypt till September 1848; and died in Alexandria on August 2nd 1849 and was buried in his mosque in the Citadel.

Mohammad Ali was born in 1769 in Kavala, a small Macedonian seaport on the coast of the Aegean Sea in what is known now by Greece.

As a young man he got involved in the military service and married a rich divorced woman who gave birth to Ibrahim, Tosson and Ismail. Mohammad Ali then became fully involved in tobacco trading from which he made good money.

When the Sublime Porte mobilized its armies to fight the French invaders, under Napoleon Bonaparte, Mohammad Ali rejoined the military and went to Egypt as part of an expeditionary force to oppose the French.

Mohammad Ali arrived to Egypt in 1801 as an adjutant to the head battalion. Being competent, he was promoted to higher ranks, and when the French left Egypt, he was already well connected with Egypt’s new ruler, Khurasan Pasha.

Supported by the Egyptian people, Mohammad Ali became the Ottoman Sultan’s Viceroy in May 1805. In July of the same year he was officially appointed by the Sublime Porte as Egypt’s Governor.

Mohammad Ali exterminated the Mamluks, the former ruling oligarchy, in the famous Citadel massacre of 1811.

Mohammad Ali sent his army to the Hijaz and took it over. He also took over Nubia, the Crete Island, Palestine and the Levant. These military victories caused the Ottoman Empire along with other European countries with interests in the region to stand against him.

They met in London in July 1840 and signed a treaty according to which Mohammad Ali’s powers were undermined and limited only to ruling Egypt and Sudan.

According to this agreement Mohammad Ali and his family were granted the hereditary right to rule Egypt and Sudan with the rule of succession to the eldest male in the family given that Egypt remains a part of the Ottoman Empire and that it pays an annual tribute (jizya) to the Ottoman Sultan. In addition, the size of the Egyptian army was limited to 18,000 soldiers, and Egypt was not allowed to rebuild its maritime arsenal.

In 1848, Mohammad Ali became sick and a decree was issued assigning his son Ibrahim Pasha to rule Egypt. He died in 1849.


Ibrahim Pasha 
Son of Mohamed Ali :


The eldest son of Mohammad Ali, he was born in 1789. He took over Egypt’s rule by a decree from the Sublime Porte in March, 1848 due to his father’s sickness. He stayed only seven months and half in rule, as he died on November 10, 1948.

He led Egypt’s expedition to Hijaz and crushed the Wahabi Revolution in 1816. He led the Egyptian army in suppressing the Greek revolutionists against Turkey; led the Egyptian army in capturing Palestine and the Levant between 1832 and 1833.

He won the crucial battle between the Egyptians and the Turks in Nazib in 1839, but the European countries forced him to withdraw from all the areas that he captured.


Abbas Helmy I (the son of Ahmed Tosson Pasha Mohammad Ali’s son): 
Abbas Helmy I (the son of Ahmed Tosson Pasha Mohammad Ali’s son) Governed Egypt from November 10, 1848 to July 13 (check on web), 1854. He was born in 1813 in Jeddah and was brought up in Egypt. Being the grandson of Mohammad Ali, he succeeded his uncle Ibrahim Pasha in ruling Egypt in 1848.

 During his rule, the army and the navy deteriorated and a lot of schools and educational institutes were shut down. He lived lavishly and was far from being devoted to state affairs and the corresponding duties. He remained in charge for almost five years and was assassinated in his palace in Banha in July 1854.


Mohammad Saiid Pasha (son of Mohammad Ali): 
Mohammad Saiid Pasha (son of Mohammad Ali) Governed Egypt from July 14 1854 till his death in January 18, 1863.


Khedeve Ismael 
Son of Ibrahim Pasha : 
He was the Governor and then the Khedive of Egypt from January 19, 1863 to June 26, 1879. He was born in 1830. When his predecessor Saiid died, Ismail was the eldest male in the family and accordingly Egypt’s rule passed to him.

He displayed some of his grandfather’s, Mohammad Ali, enthusiasm for modernization and tried as well to be independent from the Ottoman administration through currying favor with and bribing those of influence; that was how Ismail obtained the approval of the Sultan on establishing the succession by primogeniture in his own line and gained the title of Khedive in 1867.

Ismail strove against slave trade in Sudan, expanded Egypt’s properties in Africa, and inaugurated the Suez Canal for international navigation; however, during his reign, Egypt’s debts increased greatly which led to the interference of England and France in Egypt’s internal affairs under the allegation of protecting their interests.

Ismail’s poor financial policy led to his isolation in 1879 by Sultan Abd El-Hamid II, under the pressure of England and France, who appointed his son Tawfik Pasha as the Khedive of Egypt. Ismail died in 1895 and was buried in Cairo.


Khedeve Mohmed Tawfik 
Son of Ismail Pasha : 
Governed Egypt from June 26, 1879 to January 7, 1892.

He was born in 1852 and succeeded his father Ismail as khedive to Egypt in 1879 before the bilateral inspection of Britain and France on Egypt’s financial situation.


During his reign, Orabi Revolution, the first revolution in modern Egypt led by Ahmed Orabi, erupted in February 1881, and then the incidence of Abdeen Palace in September 1881. 
In 1882, Britain occupied Egypt and Egypt occupied Sudan in 1884/5. Tawfik died in 1892.


Khedeve Abbas Helmy II :
The son of Khedive Tawfiq, he was born in 1874. He ruled from January 8, 1892 till September 19, 1914. He was deposed by the British due to his reform policy and his tendency to fight the British occupation.

The British dethroned him in December 1914 and declared Egypt a British protectorate.


King Fouad I 
Son of Khedive Ismail : 
He ruled Egypt from October 9, 1917 as a Sultan and then as king until he died on April 28, 1936. He was born in 1868 and was the younger brother of Sultan Hussein. Britain made him Sultan Hussein’s successor.

During his reign the 1919 Revolution erupted under the leadership of Saeed Zaghloul. Consequently, years later and according to February 28, 1922 declaration, Britain had to declare Egypt an independent sovereign state with some reservations. Thus in 1922, Sultan Fouad declared himself the King of Egypt, issued the constitution in April of the same year, and inaugurated the new parliament in April 1924. In his reign, the first national cabinet, headed by Saeed Zaghloul, was formed.


King Farouk I 
Fouad’s Son :
He was born in 1921. When King Fouad, his father died, Farouk was still under age, and accordingly a regency council was formed of Prince Mohammad Ali, Aziz Ezzat Pasha and Sherif Sabry Pasha to run the scene until his constitutional powers were completely handed over to him on July 29, 1937. During his reign, Egypt was in a state of incomplete independence and suffered from chaos and corruption.

On July 23, 1952, the Revolution erupted and King Farouk was forced to abdicate the throne to his son Ahmed Fouad II who was a child then. The abdication document was signed in Ras El Teen Palace on July 26, 1952, and Farouk left Egypt to Italy where he died in 1965 and was buried in Egypt in El Refai mosque.


King Ahmed Fouad 
Son of king Farouk :
He was born in Cairo in January 16, 1952 and ruled nominally from July 26, 1952 until the declaration of the Republic. His father King Farouk abdicated the throne to him, under the pressure of the revolution, on July 26, 1952. A regency council, however, was formed of Prince Mohammad Abd El-Moneim, Bahei El Din Barakat Pasha and Lieutenant Rashad Mohanna until the Republic was declared on June 18, 1953.
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