Through the following lines we are showing how Mohammed Aly could to be good ruler in Egypt but also what were his mistakes against Egypt...
our aim to light certain period of the Egyptian life may it clarify the wrong concept about Egyptians desire to share the new world with their own civilization
Mohammad Ali was born in 1769 in Kavala, a small Macedonian seaport on the coast of the Aegean Sea in what is known now by Greece.
As a young man he got involved in the military service and married a rich divorced woman who gave birth to Ibrahim, Tosson and Ismail. Mohammad Ali then became fully involved in tobacco trading from which he made good money.
When the Sublime Porte mobilized its armies to fight the French invaders, under Napoleon Bonaparte, Mohammad Ali rejoined the military and went to Egypt as part of an expeditionary force to oppose the French.
Mohammad Ali arrived to Egypt in 1801 as an adjutant to the head battalion. Being competent, he was promoted to higher ranks, and when the French left Egypt, he was already well connected with Egypt’s new ruler, Khurasan Pasha.
Supported by the Egyptian people, Mohammad Ali became the Ottoman Sultan’s Viceroy in May 1805. In July of the same year he was officially appointed by the Sublime Porte as Egypt’s Governor.
Mohammad Ali exterminated the Mamluks, the former ruling oligarchy, in the famous Citadel massacre of 1811.
Mohammad Ali sent his army to the Hijaz and took it over. He also took over Nubia, the Crete Island, Palestine and the Levant. These military victories caused the Ottoman Empire along with other European countries with interests in the region to stand against him.
They met in London in July 1840 and signed a treaty according to which Mohammad Ali’s powers were undermined and limited only to ruling Egypt and Sudan.
According to this agreement Mohammad Ali and his family were granted the hereditary right to rule Egypt and Sudan with the rule of succession to the eldest male in the family given that Egypt remains a part of the Ottoman Empire and that it pays an annual tribute (jizya) to the Ottoman Sultan. In addition, the size of the Egyptian army was limited to 18,000 soldiers, and Egypt was not allowed to rebuild its maritime arsenal.
In 1848, Mohammad Ali became sick and a decree was issued assigning his son Ibrahim Pasha to rule Egypt. He died in 1849.
He led Egypt’s expedition to Hijaz and crushed the Wahabi Revolution in 1816. He led the Egyptian army in suppressing the Greek revolutionists against Turkey; led the Egyptian army in capturing Palestine and the Levant between 1832 and 1833.
He won the crucial battle between the Egyptians and the Turks in Nazib in 1839, but the European countries forced him to withdraw from all the areas that he captured.
During his rule, the army and the navy deteriorated and a lot of schools and educational institutes were shut down. He lived lavishly and was far from being devoted to state affairs and the corresponding duties. He remained in charge for almost five years and was assassinated in his palace in Banha in July 1854.
He displayed some of his grandfather’s, Mohammad Ali, enthusiasm for modernization and tried as well to be independent from the Ottoman administration through currying favor with and bribing those of influence; that was how Ismail obtained the approval of the Sultan on establishing the succession by primogeniture in his own line and gained the title of Khedive in 1867.
Ismail strove against slave trade in Sudan, expanded Egypt’s properties in Africa, and inaugurated the Suez Canal for international navigation; however, during his reign, Egypt’s debts increased greatly which led to the interference of England and France in Egypt’s internal affairs under the allegation of protecting their interests.
Ismail’s poor financial policy led to his isolation in 1879 by Sultan Abd El-Hamid II, under the pressure of England and France, who appointed his son Tawfik Pasha as the Khedive of Egypt. Ismail died in 1895 and was buried in Cairo.
He was born in 1852 and succeeded his father Ismail as khedive to Egypt in 1879 before the bilateral inspection of Britain and France on Egypt’s financial situation.
The British dethroned him in December 1914 and declared Egypt a British protectorate.
During his reign the 1919 Revolution erupted under the leadership of Saeed Zaghloul. Consequently, years later and according to February 28, 1922 declaration, Britain had to declare Egypt an independent sovereign state with some reservations. Thus in 1922, Sultan Fouad declared himself the King of Egypt, issued the constitution in April of the same year, and inaugurated the new parliament in April 1924. In his reign, the first national cabinet, headed by Saeed Zaghloul, was formed.
On July 23, 1952, the Revolution erupted and King Farouk was forced to abdicate the throne to his son Ahmed Fouad II who was a child then. The abdication document was signed in Ras El Teen Palace on July 26, 1952, and Farouk left Egypt to Italy where he died in 1965 and was buried in Egypt in El Refai mosque.