Report |Abeer Almadawy
Why has Alexandria been chosen
Alexandria, the capital The second Capital of Egypt,which used to be called "the Bride of the Mediterranean sea" ,as also Alexandria Maria and other titles...in the following lines we are going in a trip of history and stop in front of this title to Alexandria Maria, and get a deep look into its ancient history with all what is had from ups and downs ...so let's know first who is Maria?
Alexandria was the capital of Egypt in ancient times till it moved to Cairo during the Islamic ruling before 1000 years for security requests..
Alexander the Great
entered Egypt, in 332 BC and headed towards the city of Memphis, the oldest Egyptian capitals and the center of worship of the god Ptah, as well as the god Apes “sacred calf,” where he presented an offering to the gods and expressed a clear interest in Egyptian beliefs and traditions, and was called by the king of Egypt.
After the end of his visit ,he walked through the
western branch of the Nile River and brought to his attention the strategic location of one of the villages of the Egyptian fishermen, a village now known as icons district in Alexandria and ordered Alexander to fortify this location and the establishing of it on
a Greek style ,and called it Alexandria. This mission of building the city
had been assigned to the engineer Dino Chryse .With the beginning of the Roman era created ” the new city is known as Tekobolis which means the city of victory.
Here we recognize the archaeological sites and monuments that no longer exist, and because of The Weather Wars and
the outgrowth which ended on many monuments in Alexandria.
most of the effects of Alexandria were destroyed over the ages and varied reasons for destruction between internal unrest, wars and natural disasters
And urban sprawl and the erosion and other reasons that wiped out most of the effects
There effects have been removed, such as the city walls and the Lighthouse of Alexandria and the Library of Alexandria and the cemetery property and the tomb of Alexander the Great.
The fences are one of the fortifications made by Alexander the Great to fortify the city of Alexandria, according to what is the case in the Greek cities was the perimeter fence of 15 kilometers, supported by towers located in a
close distances. The two
cities were held for the dead were
outside the city walls.
• The Lighthouse of Alexandria
The Lighthouse of Alexandria is the third miracle of the seven ancient wonders was built
in the southeastern part of the island of Pharos, in the reign of King Ptolemy I
And completed in the reign of King Ptolemy II
The lighthouse consists of four floors were used in built various kinds of stones such as limestone and granite, and the first floor was a square shape and height of up to sixty meters and boasts 300 inside the compartment
They were dedicated to housing based on The Lighthouse’s issues
and to save the tools and equipment to run it.
The second floor was octagonal and was rising up 30 meters, and the third was a rounder shape and has a height of about 15 meters, while the fourth of eight columns of marble and granite bearing dome topped with a bronze statue of a height of 7 meters of the god up Bosedm God of the seas and
The lighthouse works to guide ships reflective mirror located on the fourth floor
It was used to reverse during the day and artificial lighting using fuel at night rays .
The lighthouse had been subjected to many earthquakes destroyed parts of it and it
changed in the Islamic era and in the fifteenth century the lighthouse had
exposed severe earthquake hit on impact, then the Sultan Ashraf Qaytbay
in 1480 built a citadel which is still to this time.
• Library of Alexandria
But the Library of Alexandria, which is still an unknown place, it includes thousands of manuscripts and while it seems that was sunk
during the Alexandria War in 48 BC but its right is unknown or why it was destroyed and vanished.
Also the palace of
the Royal necropolis of Alexander the Great unknown until now and place a broad debate about the place.
The most important effects of which are now existing;
First cemeteries dating back to the Ptolemaic era
Ptolemaic cemeteries, including the first cemetery now called ” The cemetery of
is located southeast of the series and uncovered by accident in 1893, a chronicle of the end of the fourth century and the beginning of the third century BC
And the oldest cemeteries in the Ptolemaic Alexandria The second cemetery now called ” Mustafa Kamel” it is located in the north-east of Mustafa Kamel area and unveiled in 1933 and 1934 when workers were
digging a land for the establishment of a football field .This cemetery is
chronicling to the late third century and the early second century BC.
the cemetery currently has four headquarters carved in the rock and the house on the Greek model and ensures graves system to drain water through clay pipes in addition to some of the most important of which represents three Knights of stock
Including two women, in addition to the cemetery Anfoushi and Wardian and
Coom Alshouqafa andand Ketakomb.
Tigran Cemetery ,it is located at
Tigran Street Cemetery and in Alwerdian area,
all witness to the civilization of life and how the Egyptian holly the
• Greek Theatre;
Here we like to refer to the Greek Theatre, which disclosed in 1960
By the Polish mission, theater is a horseshoe-shaped ,It includes
a set of bleachers of stone, alabaster and take the form of the ranks of the work of each row, has a special number of stands
most of the original them destroyed and only a small number remain, including There were corridors pass through the stairs at the center and sides used to the rise of visitors in addition to the stage floor, which was perhaps the ground was covered with mosaics
At the top of the theater it was found on some of the columns were probably with customized high folk to sit down a shed and there was a street in front of the theater and in the sides and back, there were some allocated to the actors
and to save the theater rooms Tools.
• Romanian private bathrooms
There are in Alexandria, the capital of the universe Romanian private bathrooms
Examples include what was found in the bench area, built with
red brick as well as residential villas and monuments shipwrecked
we can’t forget Cleopatra bathroom ,the most famous till now.
• Alexandria Maria? Who is Maria ?
Let’s recognize that the archaeological area is still famous for Alexandria
Often described Alexandria with this title
But most people do not know anything about the origin of the name
Beginning Maria is the archaeological area is located about 40 kilometers from the south-west of Alexandria on the southern shore of Lake Mariot off Sidi Krier area on the road between Alexandria and the Burj Al Arab and is based on the ruins Haouaria village in the neighborhood of Amiriyah .
Merritt is known name in ancient Egyptian texts before thousands years, which means the shore of sea or the beach or the port
then the Greek changed … it to became “Maria”.
Maria was Marioneas the provincial capital, which has become in the Arab time Mariout a name that was known for the region and the lake together.
And during the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian ,he
replaced Abu Sir with
Maria as the capital of the place for the region and because the city’s history to the early period of the ancient pharaonic Egypt’s history and there are referred to the prosperity in the twenty-sixth family was mentioned in the writings of Herodotus . However, the rest of the remains of the effects of Maria city
but it indicates to the important role especially in the field of maritime trade, and especially since the extension of the city on the lakeshore was over 3 kilometers has revealed the excavation of some of them
the city’s landmarks are;
3ports and docks marina and oil presses and a factory for the era of the grape and wine prepared and streams of the water and floors lined with stones and parts of other channels of columns and architectural elements.
At the end after this historical show, may be dear reader you discover a new information about a city holds all the past ,civilizations, history and the religions
Castle Journal has chosen Alexandria the capital of the universe, we are going to cover the news of this important city, we like to courage the world to come and visit it ,to revive this huge city, who witnessed the important areas of history and collected them in a new face…may be poverty and the bad economy led to a destruction of the ruins but let’s say that this is our mission now to protect what still alive…Alexandria is the land of love and peace, it could to hug all these civilizations and live more than 2332 years and may be it has ancient age return
to be 4311 years…Till me which a city over earth has this age and collect all the important human civilizations, from here it is my call to the free world;
let revive Alexandria Maria ad send our message of
love and peace to the world.
Written By; Abeer Almadawy