Written by : Dr Abdul Rehem Rehan
translated and Edited by : Abeer Almadawy
The monasticism spread in the Sinai and helped to encourage the holy places where the Mount of Sharia and the places passed by the Prophet of God and the places passed by the Holy Family. The availability of building materials of different stones and the mud of the flood operations in the Sinai helped to spread monastic structures and multiplicity. The hardship monks bring these materials from far away places.
The monasticism spread over Sinai in three stages;
The first, is the phase of the individual who is cut off from worship. He is the monk who takes his own silo. He closes the door with either a key or a stone. These silos were discovered in many places around the Holy Mountain and in the area of Retho. The third region of South Sinai revealed the effects of the Islamic and Coptic in the excavations of the season of April - June 1998 and the season of January - February 2002 about two of the first two communities in Sinai close to each other Wadi Valley area of Sinai 9 km southeast of the city of Sinai
The second stage ,phase is the stage of collective communion, the simple stage of the monastic congregations, where a number of martyans and sheikhs set up in individual establishments and then meet on holidays and on Saturday and Sunday in a public place of services and food.
The third stage ,is the diaronic system established by St. Pachomius in the fourth century AD The status of this monastic life was organized and its methods in its image
El Wadi Monastery in Sinai
Located in the village of El-Wadi, which is 6 km north of the turn, which is the monastery that is registered as a result of the decision No. 987 of 2009, the only monastery in Sinai, which retains all its architectural elements from the sixth century until now and was built by Emperor Justinian in the 6th century for the same reasons as the monastery of Catherine, And the security of the border has been built of limestone and sandstone trimmed and layout rectangle area of 92 m long 53 m width and has a defensive wall width of 1.50 m and supported by eight towers square four in the corners and two in each of the northern and southern ribs and the houses and guest rooms behind the wall M A group in groups headed by a canopy and matched by other groups in the northeastern and south-eastern part of the monastery
The rectangular chambers are 92 m long and 53 m wide, with four churches and an olive grove and 96 rooms located behind the walls of the monastery on two floors. These rooms are one for monks and the other are rooms for Christian worshipers who come to the monastery to stay in the monastery and visit the holy places in the spring before going to St. Catherine's Monastery and then to Jerusalem Christians are holed up on Sinai from all over the world and they are safe and secure in the light of the Islamic tolerance of Islamic governments
Churches of the Holy Family Road in North Sinai
The road of the Holy Family in Sinai extends from Rafah to Al-Faramah. Ostracini was located at the eastern end of Lake Bardawil, 3 km from the Mediterranean coast. 30 km west of Al-Arish, one of the road stations. Against the invasion of the Persians Ostracini was one of the areas where the fortresses were erected and the buildings in his reign reached the sea and the city became the center of an important religious chapel
Ostracini occupies an important strategic location where he meets the sea road that passes through Casium and Plumium (Ferma) and the Great War Road which passes through Qatia and Qantara and revealed three churches representing various architectural styles and the most important characteristic of the presence of the Atrium is a square courtyard leading the church had several functions including blocking Street noise from the church hall and feeding the poor and education through the question and answer and sometimes to bury the dead
It also revealed a complex of churches in the ancient city of Ferma, which includes several styles including the orthogonal church, the Church of Rotanda (circular), baptism and the churches of a basilica-style hill
Church of the island of Pharaoh in Taba
Located in an Islamic castle revealed by the area of the effects of the Sinai Sinai for the effects of Islamic and Coptic season of excavations 1988 - 1989 Pharaoh Island is located at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba 250 m from the coast of Sinai 10 km from the port of Aqaba and revealed the whole church with its basilica and Christian inscriptions dates back to the sixth century AD where the Emperor Justinian The 6th century was a lighthouse on the island of Pharaoh to guide merchant ships in the Gulf of Aqaba. The church was built of limestone and a lattice, a small basilica with many rooms on the western side of the original building fabric, giving irregular shape to the church and leaving it Commander Salah al-Din as it is when the construction of his castle famous on the island of Pharaoh Tababa and maintained by the soldiers of the Ayyubid garrison inside the castle until it was discovered
Church of the Transfiguration of St. Catherine Monastery
The church was built with huge stones of sculpted granite 40 m long and includes the Church of the Holy Slaughter and its width 19.20 m. The churches include the sub-churches and several extensions were added to it. It is accessed via a corridor in front of the entrance hall and is accessed through Narzex. 11 m and the eastern wall of Narzex there is a wooden door of the sixth century AD of the Lebanese cedar wood leads to the Basilica and was dedicated to the entry of monks, the Christian holy and visitors to the monastery were entering the northern door of the church leading to the northern wing and then walk in the wing To the north towards the east to the Church of the burning bush and then return to the South Wing
The Basilica is made up of three wings, the widest of which is the middle. The side rooms and the arches have been added. The wings are separated by two rows of columns in each row of six columns. The column is made of one granite stone. The columns have semicircular columns topped by a row of windows.
The hall is made of wood and wooden belt, which carries this truss from the sixth century AD and the foundation inscription for the monastery. This wooden belt was covered with a flat roof in the 18th century.
The temple is separated from the hall by a marble veil and the upper part of it is an econostasis of wood covered with gold plates. A Greek text is written on its door. The Holy Sanctuary was made on Crete in August 1612 in the reign of Pontius the Pontius,